Research by Scott M. Graffius Featured at CEWEP 10th Congress (Berlin)

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - LwRes


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Research by Scott M. Graffius was featured at the CEWEP 10th Congress (Berlin, Germany).

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When content is published online, relevance and engagement have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). Data can help inform strategic and tactical decisions, such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

However, reports by others on the shelf life of social media are often outdated or based on the experience of one person, one organization, or one limited set of data. With any of those common limitations, findings are at risk of being non-representative, inaccurate, or unreliable.

It’s important to have a large dataset from multiple sources. In addition to generating results that are more likely to be appropriately representative, accurate, and reliable, this approach provides a more complete picture and helps identify trends.

In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts on Snapchat, X (formerly Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs — based on data from multiple sources. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. The current (2024) edition of his ‘Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts’ is
here.

Scientists, researchers, journalists, academics, YouTubers, podcasters, SEO experts, analysts, businesses, government agencies, and others have featured and used Graffius’ research.
CEWEP was added to the list.

Here's the citation:
Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) (2023, June 15). The Power of Social Media and How to Use It. 10th CEWEP Waste-to-Energy Congress, 14th - 16th June 2023, Berlin. Available at: https://www.cewep.eu/congress2023presentations/ and https://www.cewep.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/4.1-Monika-Michalska.pdf. [Presentation slide 9 featured Graffius’ visual, representing a summary of research findings.]

The Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) is the umbrella association of the operators of Waste-to-Energy (incineration with energy recovery) plants, representing about 410 plants from 23 countries. They make up more than 80% of the Waste-to-Energy capacity in Europe. Its members are committed to ensuring high environmental standards, achieving low emissions, and maintaining state of the art energy production from remaining waste that cannot be recycled in a sustainable way.

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - Excerpts - 1 - Program Page 1 - LwRes

Page 1 of CEWEP Congress program is shown above.

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - Excerpts - 2 - Program Page 4 - LwRes

Page 4 of CEWEP Congress program is shown above.

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - Excerpts - 3 - Program Page 6 - LwRes

Page 6 of CEWEP Congress program is shown above.

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - Excerpts - 4 - Presentation Slide 9 - LwRes2

Slide 9 of CEWEP Congress presentation is shown above.

Research by Scott M Graffius Used in Materials for CEWEP 10 Congress Berlin - Excerpts - 5 - Press Release - LwRes

Press release for CEWEP Congress is shown above.

About CEWEP

The following is based on information — and includes excerpts — from
https://www.cewep.eu/what-cewep-does/.

The Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) is the umbrella association of the operators of Waste-to-Energy (incineration with energy recovery) plants, representing about 410 plants from 23 countries. They make up more than 80% of the Waste-to-Energy capacity in Europe. Its members are committed to ensuring high environmental standards, achieving low emissions, and maintaining state of the art energy production from remaining waste that cannot be recycled in a sustainable way.

CEWEP promotes research and development. It serves as a platform for the exchange of experience between members, advances scientific, technical and practical aspects of Waste-to-Energy and promotes research, development and dissemination of knowledge towards sustainable waste management and energy recovery through incineration.

To learn more, visit
https://www.cewep.eu.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20562.77764

The short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/eu-cewep

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work - Rectange - LwRes


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Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Leaders of teams — Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and others — can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed the material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. For details on the current (2024) edition including permission request information, high resolution files, and more, visit
here.

Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Constructor Institute (Switzerland), Adobe, Boston University, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, United States National Park Service, Bayer, Ford, University of Galway (Ireland), Hasso Plattner Institute (Germany), American Management Association, UC San Diego, and many more.

Cisco was added to the list.

Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work - Excerpts - 1 - LwRes

Excerpt 1 of the request from Cisco and the license granted by Scott M. Graffius to Cisco is above.

Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work - Excerpts - 2 - LwRes

Excerpt 2 of the request from Cisco and the license granted by Scott M. Graffius to Cisco is above.

Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work - Excerpts - 3 - LwRes

Excerpt 3 of the request from Cisco and the license granted by Scott M. Graffius to Cisco is above.

About Cisco

Cisco is an American multinational digital communications technology conglomerate corporation headquartered in San Jose, California. It develops, manufactures, and sells networking hardware, software, telecommunications equipment, and other high-technology services and products. Visit https://www.cisco.com to learn more.

How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, April 5). Cisco Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work' Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/cisco-2024.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16689.60000.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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"How Teams Work" Book Referenced Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development'

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

'How Teams Work' Featured 'Phases of Team Development' Work by Scott M Graffius - LwRes


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Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Leaders of teams — Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and others — can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed the material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. For details on the current (2024) edition including permission request information, high resolution files, and more, visit
here.

Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Constructor Institute (Switzerland), Adobe, Boston University, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, United States National Park Service, Bayer, University of Galway (Ireland), Hasso Plattner Institute (Germany), American Management Association, UC San Diego, and many more.

How Teams Work: A Playbook for Distributing Leadership was added to the list.

'How Teams Work' Featured 'Phases of Team Development' Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 1 - LwRes

The cover image of the book is shown above.

'How Teams Work' Featured 'Phases of Team Development' Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 2 - LwRes

Page 108 from the book is shown above.

'How Teams Work' Featured 'Phases of Team Development' Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 3 - LwRes

A zoomed-in view of page 108 from the book is shown above.

About How Teams Work: A Playbook for Distributing Leadership

From the product description: “Creating strong, cohesive teams is an art, and
How Teams Work: A Playbook for Distributing Leadership is the essential guide for school leaders looking to master this craft. This interactive playbook doesn't just advise but actively equips leaders with the tools they need to foster trust, accountability, and engagement in their teams.”

How Teams Work: A Playbook for Distributing Leadership is available at Amazon and other sellers.

Google highlights the book
here.

About the Authors

How Teams Work: A Playbook for Distributing Leadership was written by Cathy J. Lassiter, Douglas Fisher, Toni Osborn Faddis, and Nancy Frey.

Cathy Lassiter, Ed.D., is an international consultant with over 35 years of combined experience as a public school teacher, principal, central office administrator, and consultant. She is on X (stylized as
๐•) at @cathy_lassiter. Visit here to learn more.

Douglas Fisher, Ph.D., is professor and chair of educational leadership at San Diego State University and a leader at Health Sciences High and Middle College. He is on X (stylized as
๐•) at @DFISHERSDSU. Visit here to learn more.

Toni Faddis, EdD, is a Corwin author and full-time professional learning consultant. Additional information is available here. She is on X (stylized as
๐•) at @ToniFaddis. Visit here to learn more.

Nancy Frey, Ph.D., is a professor in Educational Leadership at San Diego State University and a member of the International Literacy Association’s Literacy Research Panel. She is on X (stylized as
๐•) at @ToniFaddis. Visit here to learn more.

Graffius Presents Unique and Compelling Talks and Workshops on High Performance Teams

Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. While each session is unique, the top topic is high performance teams. In those sessions, he expands upon on his 'Phases of Team Development' work. Sessions are dynamic, engaging, and packed with fresh insights and usable information. They’re highly rated by attendees and organizers alike. Visit
here to learn more.

How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, April 2). "How Teams Work" Book Referenced Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development.' Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/htw.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23495.51368.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/htw-2024 .

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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Division of the EU’s European Commission Used Material Developed by Scott M. Graffius

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

European Commission Using Material Developed by Scott M. Graffius - LwRes

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Strategic objectives play a crucial role in guiding organizations towards achieving their vision and mission. They’re fulfilled by projects, endeavors undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.

The art and science of project management (Agile or otherwise) — the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to projects — is indispensable for the management and completion of projects. And tools can make a significant contribution to successful outcomes.

In 2007, Scott M. Graffius developed a fresh take on RACI charts, a simple project management tool. His unique material provides audiences with practical information they can use to leverage RACI charts to help manage complexities and achieve success. Graffius periodically refreshes his work. In 2020, he published an updated version on
ResearchGate, a European platform for researchers and scientists.

Graffius' respective work is
here and citation information follows:

Graffius, Scott M. (2020). How the RACI Tool Can Help You: Use RACI to Establish Roles and Responsibilities—and Improve Outcomes—for Projects and Other Work. Los Angeles, California: Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14713.62561/4.

A division of the EU’s European Commission, Erasmus+, used Graffius' material in one of their publications. Their work is
here and select visuals follow.

EU EC Features Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 1 - LwRes

The cover page is shown above.

EU EC Features Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 2 - LwRes

Page 13 is shown above.

EU EC Features Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 3 - LwRes

A zoomed-in version visual of page 13 is shown above.

About the European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is the governing body of the European Union (EU). It represents and upholds the interests of the EU as a whole and it is independent of national governments. The EC prepares legislation for adoption by the Council (representing the member countries) and the Parliament (representing the citizens). It administers the budget and the policy programs in cooperation with authorities in the member countries. The EC has an administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants. Visit https://commission.europa.eu to learn more.

About Erasmus+

Erasmus+ (which is short for "EuRopean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students") is the European Union’s program to support education, training, youth, and sport in Europe. To learn more, visit https://erasmus-plus.ec.europa.eu.

About ResearchGate

Started in 2008, ResearchGate is a platform for researchers and scientists to connect, collaborate, and share their work. It reports, "Our mission is to connect the world of science and make research open to all." Visit
https://www.researchgate.net to learn more.

How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, April 1). Division of the EU’s European Commission Used Material Developed by Scott M. Graffius. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/eu-2024.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23115.40488.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



black_spacer_lr_sq_v3

The short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/eu-2024

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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Ford Features Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Work

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by Ford - LwRes

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With a license from Scott M. Graffius, his copyrighted ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is featured and used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Constructor Institute (Switzerland), Adobe, Boston University, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, United States National Park Service, Bayer, University of Galway (Ireland), Hasso Plattner Institute (Germany), American Management Association, UC San Diego, and many more.

Ford was added to the list.

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More Information on Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development'

Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius' first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development.’ It’s a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It’s also inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Leaders of teams — Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and others — can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed the material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. For details on the current (2024) edition including permission request information, high resolution files, and more, visit
here.

Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. While each session is unique, the top topic is high performance teams. In those sessions, he expands upon on his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work. Sessions are dynamic, engaging, and packed with fresh insights and usable information. They’re highly rated by attendees and organizers alike. Visit
here to learn more.

About Ford

Ford Motor Company is a multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, United States. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. Ford develops and delivers Ford trucks, sport utility vehicles, commercial vans and cars, and Lincoln luxury vehicles. The company does that through three customer-centered business segments: Ford Blue, engineering gas-powered and hybrid vehicles; Ford Model e, developing electric vehicles (EVs); and Ford Pro, helping commercial customers transform and expand their businesses with vehicles and services tailored to their needs. Additionally, Ford provides financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company. Ford employs about 177,000 people worldwide. More information about the company and its products and services is available at
https://corporate.ford.com.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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Short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/ford-2024

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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UK Telecommunications Regulator Ofcom Featured Research by Scott M. Graffius

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Ofcom Features Research by Scott M Graffius - LwRes

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Ofcom — the regulatory authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications, and postal industries of the United Kingdom — featured and used research by Scott M. Graffius. For the full story, read on.

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When content is published online, relevance and engagement have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). Data can help inform strategic and tactical decisions, such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

However, reports by others on the shelf life of social media are often outdated or based on the experience of one person, one organization, or one limited set of data. With any of those common limitations, findings are at risk of being non-representative, inaccurate, or unreliable.

It’s important to have a large dataset from multiple sources. In addition to generating results that are more likely to be appropriately representative, accurate, and reliable, this approach provides a more complete picture and helps identify trends.

In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts on Snapchat, X (formerly Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs — based on data from multiple sources. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. The current (2024) edition of his ‘Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts’ is
here.

Scientists, researchers, journalists, academics, YouTubers, podcasters, SEO experts, analysts, businesses, government agencies, and others have featured and used Graffius’ research.
The Office of Communications (commonly known as Ofcom) was added to the list.

Ofcom — the regulatory authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications, and postal industries of the United Kingdom — featured and used Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts’ research in their
Categorisation: Advice Submitted to the Secretary of State.

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About Ofcom

The Office of Communications — commonly known as Ofcom — is a regulatory and competition authority in the United Kingdom. It oversees the wireless spectrum, broadcast TV, radio, phones, broadband, online services, and post sectors. Visit its website at
https://www.ofcom.org.uk to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22846.70728

The short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/ofcom9

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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The Protocol for Reporting an Error to an Author or Publisher

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius - Protocol for Reporting and Error  to an Author or Publisher - v2024 - LwRes


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This article covers what to do if you find an error in a book, scientific paper, or other publication. Including supporting information, it's organized into eight sections:

  • Introduction
  • How to Report an Error
  • A Real Example of Reporting an Error
  • What Happens After You Report an Error
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary of Terminology
  • References
  • How to Cite This Article

This article does not cover how to handle violation of copyrights or other intellectual property (IP) rights. For IP cases, it is recommended that you consult a qualified attorney.

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Introduction

Have you encountered a typo in a book or a factual error in a scientific paper? Errors, whether minor typos or significant inaccuracies, can compromise the credibility, readability, and utility of published works. However, you can make a difference. By reporting these errors to the author or publisher, you contribute to advancing the integrity and value of the respective information.

This article will equip you with information to report errors effectively, irrespective of the subject matter. From identifying the error and crafting a clear report to understanding what happens post-submission, each step is covered. Whether it's enhancing the experience for future readers or upholding the accuracy and integrity of scientific works, your vigilance and action in reporting errors plays a pivotal role.

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How to Report an Error

If you discover an error in a publication, here are the recommended steps for reporting it:

STEP 1: Is there a newer edition or update to the publication?

1A. Yes, there is a newer edition or update.

XXX 1A1. Is the error resolved in the newer edition or update?

XXX XXX 1A1A. If yes to 1A1, the error is resolved in the newer edition or update, then no further action is needed.

XXX XXX 1A1B. If no to 1A1, then go to STEP 2.

1B. If no, there is not a newer edition or update, then go to STEP 2.

STEP 2: Is there a publisher’s web page for the publication, or an author’s website which mentions the publication, or an errata/corrections list for the publication at any location (Google the publication’s title and "AND errata OR corrections")?

2A. Yes, there’s a publisher's web page for the publication, an author's website which mentions the publication, or an errata/corrections list for the publication at any location

XXX 2A1. Is the error referenced?

XXX XXX 2A1A. If yes to 2A1, then no further action is needed.

XXX XXX 2A1B. If no to 2A1, then go to STEP 3.

2B. If No, there is not a publisher's web page for the publication, or an author's website which mentions the publication, or an errata/corrections list for the publication at any location, then go to STEP 3.

STEP 3: Does the publication specify the process for reporting an error?

3A. If yes, the publication specifies the process for reporting an error, then follow it to report the error.

3B. If no, the publication does not specify the process for reporting an error, then go to STEP 4.

STEP 4: Does the publisher’s website or author’s website specify the process for reporting an error?

4A. If yes, the publisher’s website or author’s website specifies the process for reporting an error, then follow it to report the error.

4B. If no, neither the publisher’s website nor the author’s website specifies the process for reporting an error, then go to STEP 5.

STEP 5: Does the publication include an email address for the publisher or author?

5A. If yes, the publication includes an email address for the publisher or author, then use it to send an email with your report of the error.

5B. If no, the publication does not include an email address for the publisher or author, then go to STEP 6.

STEP 6: Does the publisher’s website or the author’s website include an email address?

6A. If yes, the publisher’s website or the author’s website includes an email address, then use it to send an email with your report of the error.

6B. If no, the publisher’s website or the author’s website does not include an email address, then go to STEP 7.

STEP 7: Can you find an email address for the publisher or author via other means (such as a Google search)?

7A. If yes, you found an email address for the publisher or author, then use it to send an email with your report of the error.

7B. If no, you could not find an email address for the publisher or author, then you may — or may not — want to contact the publisher or author via another method (such as a direct message on social media).

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Suggestions for reporting an error via email:

  • In the subject line of your email, note “Reporting an error in [name of publication]”
  • In the main part of your email, reiterate that you’re writing to report an error in [name of publication]. Specify the page number(s)/location(s) of the respective content and delineate the error or problem. Provide as many details are practical.
  • In the closing part of your email, note your email address (even if it’s the same email you used to send the report).

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A Real Example of Reporting an Error

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) is the Project Management Institute’s flagship publication and is a fundamental resource for effective project management in any industry. The book is the global, gold standard for project management. The PMI released the seventh edition of the PMBOK Guide on August 1, 2021.

On November 4, 2021, Scott M. Graffius discovered that a factual error was introduced into the seventh edition of the
PMBOK Guide.

The PMI has a process to handle such problems. If/when errors are discovered, the PMI instructs individuals to share findings by completing the PMI Standards Program Comment Form and emailing it to the PMI. The form has two sections: Comment and Suggested Change. Graffius completed the form.

Here’s what Graffius wrote in the Comment section:
“Section 4.2.6.1 Tuckman Ladder includes: ‘Bruce Tuckman articulated the stages of team development as forming, storming, norming, and performing. Many people add a fifth stage, adjourning.’ The passage is misleading and incorrect. Here’s why. In 1965, Bruce Tuckman introduced his model inclusive of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing. (The source/citation: Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63: 384-399.) However, Tuckman subsequently discovered adjourning to be so important that he updated his own model in 1977 to include adjourning. (The source/citation: Tuckman, B. W., & Jensen, M. A. C. (1977). Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited. Group and Organizational Studies, 2 (4): 419- 427.) Tuckman says there are five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. By not including that relevant, informative, and helpful fact — and instead vaguely saying ‘Many people add a fifth stage, adjourning.’ — the passage is misleading and incorrect.”

Here's what Graffius wrote in the Suggested Change section:
“For the reason detailed in the Comment section of this form, I suggest changing the passage from ‘Bruce Tuckman articulated the stages of team development as forming, storming, norming, and performing. Many people add a fifth stage, adjourning.’ to: ‘Bruce Tuckman articulated the stages of team development as forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.’ or ‘Bruce Tuckman articulated the stages of team development as forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. He introduced the first four stages in 1965, and he added the fifth stage when he updated his model in 1977.’”

The completed Standards Program Comment Form also included Graffius’ name and email address. He emailed the form to the PMI on November 4, 2021.

What happened next? The story is
here.

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What Happens After You Report an Error

Error handling varies by organization. Generally, excerpt for cases where a minor error is concerned, any necessary changes (such as updating the publication) will be accompanied by a post-publication notice, which will be linked to the original publication. These changes can take the form of a Correction notice, an Expression of Concern, a Retraction, or a Removal. The four forms are delineated next.

  1. Correction Notice. When a work is impacted by an error (or omission) but the scholarly integrity remains intact, a Correction Notice or similar communication will be issued. Some publishers classify errors as major or minor. With that bifurcation, major errors (such as missing text) are addressed by a Correction Notice, and minor errors (such as typos) are addressed by either a Correction Notice or another action — such as a footnote or other notation added to the publication detailing that the publication has been corrected.
  2. Expression of Concern. In certain cases, such as a protracted active investigation into potential research or publication misconduct, an Expression of Concern may be issued. At the conclusion of the investigation, a Correction Notice or Retraction may be disseminated.
  3. Retraction. Where a major error invalidates the academic integrity of the publication or where misconduct has taken place, a Retraction will be issued.
  4. Removal. In circumstances where problems cannot be handled via a Correction Notice or Retraction, a Removal will be performed. Note: This is rare.

Forms/notices may be called an erratum (plural: errata) or a corrigendum (plural: corrigenda). See the Glossary section of this article for details.

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Conclusion

This article provided information on how to report errors effectively. From identifying the problem and crafting a clear report to understanding what happens post-submission, this article shined a light on each step. Whether it's enhancing the experience for future readers or upholding the accuracy and integrity of scientific works, your vigilance and action in reporting errors plays a pivotal role.

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Glossary of Terminology

  • Addendum. Used for additional information that wasn't available at the time of publication but needs to be included for completeness.
  • Correction Notice. A broad term that can encompass any of the following scenarios. When a work is impacted by an error (or omission) but the scholarly integrity remains intact, a Correction Notice or similar communication will be issued. Some publishers classify errors as major or minor. With that bifurcation, major errors are addressed by a Correction Notice, and minor errors are addressed by either a Correction Notice or another action — such as a footnote or other notation added to the publication detailing that the publication has been corrected.
  • Corrigenda. See: Corrigendum.
  • Corrigendum. Singular: Corrigendum. Plural: Corrigenda. Formality: Corrigendum is a more formal term used to correct errors in books, journals, or other publications. Publication: A corrigendum is typically issued by the publisher as a separate notice that accompanies the original publication. Scope: It usually addresses significant errors that affect the overall content, such as factual inaccuracies, incorrect data, or major typos. Format: A corrigendum provides a clear description of the errors and the corrected information, usually including page numbers or sections where the corrections should be applied. Also see: Errata, Major Error, Minor Error.
  • Errata. Singular: Erratum. Plural: Errata. Formality: Errata is a more informal term used to indicate errors in books, articles, or other publications. Inclusion: Errata may be included directly in the publication itself, often as a list of corrections at the beginning or end of the book or article. Scope: It can address both minor and major errors. Format: Errata are usually presented as a list, highlighting the errors and providing the corrected information without the formal structure of a corrigendum. Also see: Corrigendum.
  • Erratum. See: Errata.
  • Factual Error. An inaccuracy in the information presented. Factual errors are usually considered to be major errors.
  • Formatting Error. Mistakes related to layout, style, or referencing. Formatting errors are usually considered to be minor errors.
  • Major Error. Major errors are errors or omissions (such as missing text) that can impact the interpretation of the publication but where the scholarly integrity of the work remains intact. Also see: Minor Error.
  • Minor Error. Minor errors are errors (such as typos or formatting errors) which do not impact the readers’ understanding of the content. Also see: Major Error.
  • Reader Report. In academic publishing, this refers to feedback provided by reviewers who identify errors or suggest improvements before publication.
  • Retraction. A retraction is a disavowal of a work. It's typically done when findings in the work are not considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error — when a significant error invalidates the findings or conclusions, when the work is found to have plagiarized or infringed on the copyright of another work, or when the work is found to have violated ethical guidelines.
  • Typo. The term typo is short for typographical errors (e.g., spelling and grammar mistakes). Typos are classified as minor errors.

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References/Sources


  1. Alter, Alexandra (2019, September 22). It’s a Fact: Mistakes are Embarrassing the Publishing Industry. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/22/business/publishing-books-errors.html.
  2. American Psychological Association (2019, November). Correction Notices. Available at: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/research-publication/correction-notices.
  3. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) (2018, November 15). ACM Publications Policy on the Withdrawal, Correction, Retraction, and Removal of Works from ACM Publications and ACM DL. Available at: https://www.acm.org/publications/policies/retraction-policy.
  4. Cambridge University Press (n.d.). Publishing Ethics. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/flow/information/journal-policies/publishing-ethics.
  5. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (n.d.). Post-Publication Discussions and Corrections. Available at: https://publicationethics.org/postpublication.
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  8. Faust, Jessica (2007, October 3). Typos and Errors After Publication. Available at: https://bookendsliterary.com/typos-and-errors-after-publication.
  9. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, November 10). An Error Was Introduced Into the Seventh Edition of 'A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)'. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/pmbok7.html.
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  14. Marasoviฤ‡, Tea; Utrobiฤ‰iฤ‡, Ana; and Maruลiฤ‡, Ana (2018, March 31). Transparency of Retracting and Replacing Articles. The Lancet, 391 (10127): 1244-1245.
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  17. Palgrave Macmillan (n.d.). Corrections and Retractions. Available at: https://www.palgrave.com/gp/editorial-policies/corrections-and-retractions.
  18. Pearson Education / InformIT (n.d.). Contact Us: Submit Errata. Available at: https://www.informit.com/about/contact_us/index.aspx?ContactUs_Topics_Partners_id=9d39709c-c911-4c96-ac2c-2c5a22d68ba9.
  19. Project Management Institute (PMI) (n.d.). PMI Standards Program Comment Form. Available at: https://www.pmi.org/-/media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/pmbok-standards/pmi-standards-program-comment-form.pdf.
  20. Project Management Institute (PMI) (n.d.). Standards Errata Sheets. Available at: https://www.pmi.org/pmbok-guide-standards/foundational/pmbok/errata-sheets.
  21. Public Library of Science (PLOS) (n.d.). Corrections, Expressions of Concern, and Retractions. Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/s/corrections-and-retractions.
  22. SAE International (n.d.). ARINC Standard – Errata Report Template. Available at: https://wcm14.sae.org/site/binaries/content/assets/itc/content/arinc/errata-form.docx [note: selecting the link will download the file].
  23. Sage Publications (n.d.). Sage Corrections and Retractions Policy. Available at: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/sage-corrections-and-retractions-policy.
  24. Science Publishing Group (n.d.). Ethical Guidelines. Available at: https://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/information/ethical-guidelines.
  25. Springer (n.d.). Editorial Policies: Corrections and Retractions. Available at: https://www.springer.com/gp/editorial-policies/corrections-and-retractions.
  26. Taylor & Francis (n.d.). Publishing Ethics for Journal Editors: FAQs. Available at: https://editorresources.taylorandfrancis.com/publishing-ethics-for-editors/publishing-ethics-faqs.
  27. Ubiquity Press (n.d.). Correction and Retraction Policy. Available at: https://ubiquitypress.com/site/corrections.
  28. Warner, Brooke (2019, April 26). How to Publish a Perfect Book. Available at: https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/authors/pw-select/article/79902-how-to-publish-a-perfect-book.html.
  29. Wiley (n.d.). Best Practice Guidelines on Research Integrity and Publishing Ethics. Available at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/ethics-guidelines/index.html.
  30. Wiley Author Services (n.d.). Wiley's Policy for Handling Retractions, Withdrawals, and Expressions of Concern. Available at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/ethics-guidelines/retractions-and-expressions-of-concern.html.
  31. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (n.d.). Managing Intellectual Property in the Book Publishing Industry. Available at: https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/copyright/868/wipo_pub_868.pdf.

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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, March 22). The Protocol for Reporting an Error to an Author or Publisher. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/error-reporting.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18830.98883.

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Post-Publication Notes

If there are any supplements or updates to this article after the date of publication, they will appear here.

After the article was published, Scott M. Graffius developed a
flowchart of the suggested steps for reporting an error. The flowchart is a draft and it is subject to change.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Research by Scott M. Graffius Featured in Scientific Paper Published by INFORMS

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scientific Paper Published by INFORMS Features Research by Scott M Graffius - LwRes

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When content is published online, relevance and engagement have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). Data can help inform strategic and tactical decisions, such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

However, reports by others on the shelf life of social media are often outdated or based on the experience of one person, one organization, or one limited set of data. With any of those common limitations, findings are at risk of being non-representative, inaccurate, or unreliable.

It’s important to have a large dataset from multiple sources. In addition to generating results that are more likely to be appropriately representative, accurate, and reliable, this approach provides a more complete picture and helps identify trends.

In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts on Snapchat, X (formerly Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs — based on data from multiple sources. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. The current (2024) edition of his ‘Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts’ is
here.

Scientists, researchers, journalists, academics, YouTubers, podcasters, SEO experts, analysts, businesses, and others have featured and used Graffius’ research.

Manufacturing and Service Operations Management, a publication of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), was added to the list.

A scientific paper — ‘Content Promotion for Online Content Platforms with the Diffusion Effect’ — was published in
Manufacturing and Service Operations Management. That scientific paper highlighted and referenced Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts’ research.

(Excerpts) Scientific Paper Published by INFORMS Features Research by Scott M Graffius - Page 1 - LwRes

Page 1 of the scientific paper is shown at above.

(Excerpts) Scientific Paper Published by INFORMS Features Research by Scott M Graffius - Page 11 - LwRes

Page 11 of the scientific paper is shown at above.

(Excerpts) Scientific Paper Published by INFORMS Features Research by Scott M Graffius - Page 31 - LwRes

Page 31 of the scientific paper is shown at above.

Citation for the scientific paper:
Lin, Yunduan, & Wang, Mengxin, & Zhang, Heng, & Zhang, Renyu, & Shen, Max. (2024, March). Content Promotion for Online Content Platforms with the Diffusion Effect.
Manufacturing and Service Operations Management. DOI: 10.1287/msom.2022.0172.

About Manufacturing and Service Operations Management

Manufacturing and Service Operations Management (M&SOM) is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1999 that is published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS). M&SOM presents state-of-the-art research of interest to both academic and industry researchers and practitioners working at the interface of research and implementation. Visit https://pubsonline.informs.org/journal/msom to learn more.

Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences

With almost 12,000 members worldwide, the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) is the leading international association for professionals in operations research, analytics, management science, economics, behavioral science, statistics, artificial intelligence, data science, applied mathematics, and related fields.

INFORMS advances and promotes the science and technology of decision making to save lives, save money, and solve problems through an array of highly-cited publications, conferences, competitions, networking communities, and professional development services. Its slogan is “Smarter Decisions for a Better World.” To learn more, visit
https://www.informs.org.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/infrm-24

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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Most Valuable IT Certifications: Update for 2024

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - LwRes

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In Technology, there's no substitute for experience. However, certifications remain a valuable tool for advancing one's career.

In 2017, Scott M. Graffius started developing and reporting information on the most valuable Information Technology (IT) certifications. As technology advances and marketplace needs evolve over time, the skills and knowledge required to succeed can also change. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates his respective work. This article provides the 2024 update for the most valuable IT certifications.

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Certifications can help position people as a valuable asset to their current — and prospective future — employers.

Employers want employees and candidates with up-to-date knowledge and skills, and certifications demonstrate a person’s mastery of the respective subject. Additionally, certifications can advance a person’s marketability and lead to promotions and higher pay.

Graffius compiled and analyzed data from 12 sources — Exceptional Agility, California Institute of Arts and Technology, CIO, CIO Dive, ComputerScience(dot)org, eWeek, Fortune, Global Knowledge, Indeed, PC Magazine, Robert Half, and Skillsoft — to determine the general consensus on the most valuable IT related certifications. Eleven certifications emerged.

Now, on to this list!

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 1 - CompTIA A - LwRes

1. CompTIA A+

  • Certification name: CompTIA A+
  • Certification name abbreviation: A+
  • Governing organization - name: CompTIA
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.comptia.org
  • Short description of certification: This is generally considered to be a certification for people who want to start careers in the IT industry. To acquire the CompTIA A+ certification, you must pass two separate tests: Core 1 and Core 2. Core 1 (220-1101) covers mobile devices, networking technology, hardware, virtualization, and cloud computing. Core 2 (220-1102) covers operating systems, security, software, and operational procedures.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: None
  • Certification exam – cost: Total cost for the two exams varies by location and other factors. The average total combined cost is $492
  • Certification exam – delivery (in-person or online): in-person or online
  • Certification exam – number of questions: Core 1 exam has 90 questions, Core 2 exam also has 90 questions
  • Certification exam – time to complete it: 90 minutes for Core 1 exam, and 90 minutes for Core 2 exam
  • Certification exam – minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 83% for the Core 1 exam. Estimated to be 86% for the Core 2 exam.
  • Certification expiration – does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration – how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $75

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 2 - CCNA - LwRes

2. Cisco Certified Network Associate

  • Certification name: Cisco Certified Network Associate
  • Certification name abbreviation: CCNA
  • Governing organization - name: Cisco
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.cisco.com
  • Short description of certification: Validates the ability to install, operate, configure, and troubleshoot basic Cisco networking devices and technologies.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: No prerequisites. However, Cisco recommends having at least a basic knowledge of networking and at least one year of experience with Cisco products.
  • Certification exam – cost: $300
  • Certification exam – delivery (in-person or online): In-person or online
  • Certification exam – number of questions: Varies, between 50-75 questions
  • Certification exam – time to complete it: 120 minutes
  • Certification exam – minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 80%
  • Certification expiration – does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration – how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $150

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 3 - CISSP - LwRes

3. Certified Information Systems Security Professional

  • Certification name: Certified Information Systems Security Professional
  • Certification name abbreviation: CISSP
  • Governing organization - name: (ISC)²
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.isc2.org
  • Short description of certification: The CISSP is a highly respective, vendor-neutral certification that validates a broad understanding of information security and best practices.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: At least five years of paid, full time work experience involving two or more (of the eight) domains of the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK)
  • Certification exam - cost: $749, although the cost may vary by location and other factors
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person at a Pearson VUE testing center
  • Certification exam - number of questions: Between 125-175 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 4 hours
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $125

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 4 - PMP - LwRes

4. Project Management Professional

  • Certification name: Project Management Professional
  • Certification name abbreviation: PMP
  • Governing organization - name: Project Management Institute (PMI)
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.pmi.org/
  • Short description of certification: PMP certification is a globally recognized and sought-after project management credential that recognizes experienced project managers for successfully leading teams through a project’s life cycle.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: A or B. (A) Bachelor's degree (or global equivalent) + 36 months of project management experience + 35 hours of project management education/training. Or (B) Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate’s degree or global equivalent) + 60 months of project management experience + 35 hours of project management education/training.
  • Certification exam - cost: $405 for members of the PMI, $575 for those not a member of the PMI
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person
  • Certification exam - number of questions: Between 180-200 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 230 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 81%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $150

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 5 - CEH - LwRes

5. Certified Ethical Hacker

  • Certification name: Certified Ethical Hacker
  • Certification name abbreviation: CEH
  • Governing organization - name: EC-Council
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.eccouncil.org
  • Short description of certification: This certification is obtained by demonstrating knowledge of assessing the security of computer systems by looking for vulnerabilities in target systems, using the same knowledge and tools as a malicious hacker, but in a lawful and legitimate manner to assess the security posture of a target system.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: Candidates need to have experience in a job related to network security or complete approved training courses before taking the exam
  • Certification exam - cost: $1,199, can vary based on registration options and other factors
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person at a Pearson VUE testing center or online proctored
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 125
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 4 hours
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $85

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 6 - AWS - LwRes

6. AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate

  • Certification name: AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate
  • Certification name abbreviation: AWS SA
  • Governing organization - name: Amazon Web Services (AWS)
  • Governing organization - website: http://aws.amazon.com
  • Short description of certification: This certification showcases knowledge and skills in AWS technology, across a wide range of AWS services. The focus is on the design of cost- and performance-optimized solutions, demonstrating a strong understanding of the AWS Well-Architected Framework.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: None
  • Certification exam - cost: $150
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person or online
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 65 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 130 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $75

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 7 - Azure - LwRes

7. Azure Administrator Associate

  • Certification name: Azure Administrator Associate
  • Certification name abbreviation: There isn't an abbreviation designated. AZ-104 (the corresponding exam code for the certification) is sometimes used as an identifier.
  • Governing organization - name: Microsoft
  • Governing organization - website: https://learn.microsoft.com
  • Short description of certification: Azure Administrator Associate (also referred to as Microsoft Certified: Azure Administrator Associate) certification validates one’s ability to manage Azure subscriptions, implement and secure infrastructure, configure virtual networks, deploy virtual machines, monitor resources, and troubleshoot issues.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: None, but Microsoft recommends at least six months of experience administering Azure
  • Certification exam - cost: $165
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person or online proctored
  • Certification exam - number of questions: Varies, typically between 40-60 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 120 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 1 year
  • Certification renewal cost: Free renewal

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 8 - ITIL - LwRes B

8. ITIL Foundation

  • Certification name: ITIL Foundation
  • Certification name abbreviation: ITIL
  • Governing organization - name: Axelos
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.axelos.com
  • Short description of certification: Provides a foundation in IT service management (ITSM) best practices. Covers key concepts, service lifecycle, and the benefits of effective ITSM.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: None
  • Certification exam - cost: $330
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person or online
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 40 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 60 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Some sources indicate it is 65%, others estimate it to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? No
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? Not applicable; certification does not expire
  • Certification renewal cost: Not applicable; certification does not expire

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 8 - ITIL - LwRes

9. Google Certified Professional Cloud Architect

  • Certification name: Google Certified Professional Cloud Architect
  • Certification name abbreviation: GCP Architect
  • Governing organization - name: Google
  • Governing organization - website: https://cloud.google.com
  • Short description of certification: Demonstrates expertise in designing, developing, and managing secure, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective solutions on the Google Cloud Platforms (GCP)
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: None; familiarity with GCP products and services is recommended
  • Certification exam - cost: $200
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 50 questions
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 120 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 2 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $100

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.
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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 10 - CSM - LwRes

10. Certified ScrumMaster

  • Certification name: Certified ScrumMaster
  • Certification name abbreviation: CSM
  • Governing organization - name: Scrum Alliance
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.scrumalliance.org
  • Short description of certification: Validates a solid understanding of Scrum including practical ways to apply it on one’s team and organization
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: Completion of a two-day course by an authorized trainer
  • Certification exam - cost: Course (referenced above) includes the cost of the exam. Cost ranges from about $500 to $1,500 depending on the location, delivery format, and other factors
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): Online
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 50
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 1 hour
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): Estimated to be 74%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 2 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $100

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Most Valuable IT Certifications - Update for 2024 - Scott_Graffius_com - Blg Sctn and Sq - 11 - AI - LwRes

11. Certified Artificial Intelligence Scientist

  • Certification name: Certified Artificial Intelligence Scientist
  • Certification name abbreviation: CAIS
  • Governing organization - name: United States Artificial Intelligence Institute (USAII)
  • Governing organization - website: https://www.usaii.org
  • Short description of certification: The CAIS is publicized by USAII as the most sophisticated and ground-breaking certification program for senior AI professionals and business leaders to develop the perfect AI solutions and strategy, bringing the right organizational change leading to an absolute business transformation.
  • Prerequisites (if any) for certification: One of three eligibility paths and completion of a self-paced course. Path 1: Bachelor's degree (or equivalent) in any academic discipline; and at least five years of experience in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Science, Business Analytics, Business Intelligence, Project Management, or any Programming Languages. Path 2: Bachelor's degree (or equivalent) in any academic discipline; and at least four years of experience in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Data Science, Business Analytics, Business Intelligence, Engineering, Finance, or Management. Path 3: Certified Artificial Intelligence Consultant (CAIC) (or other equivalent) certification; and at least four years of experience for a candidate who has a Bachelor's degree (or equivalent), or three years of experience for a candidate who has a Master's degree (or equivalent).
  • Certification exam - cost: Course (referenced above) includes the cost of the exam. Cost is $894.
  • Certification exam - delivery (in-person or online): In-person
  • Certification exam - number of questions: 80
  • Certification exam - time to complete it: 100 minutes
  • Certification exam - minimum pass rate (X% or higher correct required to pass exam): 70%
  • Certification expiration - does it expire? Yes
  • Certification expiration - how long does it last before expiring? 3 years
  • Certification renewal cost: $249

Note: Prerequisites, cost (shown in United States Dollar - USD), and other data are subject to change by the governing organization.

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Certifications can provide significant value for professionals looking to enhance their skills and credibility in the marketplace. Employers often prefer to hire certified professionals, and people who invest in professional credentials typically enjoy larger salaries.

Informed by data from multiple sources, this article identified and profiled 11 IT related certifications: CompTIA A+, Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), Project Management Professional (PMP), Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH), AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate (AWS SA), Azure Administrator Associate, ITIL Foundations (ITIL), Google Certified Professional Cloud Architect (GCP Architect), Certified ScrumMaster (CSM), and Certified Artificial Intelligence Scientist (CAIS).

Those interested in securing one or more IT related certifications can leverage the information presented in this article to assist in their decision-making.

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References/Sources:

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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, March 15). Most Valuable IT Certifications: Update for 2024. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/it-certs-2024.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11776.03849.

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About Scott M. Graffius

ScottGraffius-181024_1000x1000_152KB-lowres-sq

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is:
https://bit.ly/it-certs

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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LeadingEng London Featured Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development'

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Phases of Team Development by Scott M Graffius Shown at LeadingEng 2023 London - vG - LwRes



With a license/authorization from Scott M. Graffius, his copyrighted ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is featured and used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Adobe, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Boston University, United States National Park Service, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Galway Ireland, American Management Association, UC San Diego – Rady School of Management, an aerospace company, an advanced technology R&D firm, and many more.

As shown above, his ‘Phases of Team Development’ visual was featured during a session at LeadingEng London — a unique one-day interactive program for CTOs and engineering VPs, Directors, and Heads. LeadingEng is produced by
LeadDev.

Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, he created his ‘Phases of Team Development.’ It’s a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It’s also inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed his material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. For details on the current (2024) edition including permission request information, high resolution files, and more, visit
here.

Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. While each session is unique, the top topic is high performance teams. In those sessions, he leverages and expands upon on his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work. Sessions are dynamic, engaging, and packed with fresh insights and usable information. They’re highly rated by attendees and organizers alike. To book him for your conference or other event, complete a
speaker engagement request form or email him.
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About Scott M. Graffius

ScottGraffius-181024_1000x1000_152KB-lowres-sq

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/lead_eng

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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Scott M. Graffius Speaking on Successful AI at DevDays Europe 2024 Conference

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius - DevDays Europe 2024 - Cover Image - v March 6 2024 - Blg - LwRes


Agile leader, consultant, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker Scott M. Graffius delights audiences around the world with talks and workshops on AI, Innovation, Agile, Project Management, High Performance Teams, Video Game Development, Tech Leadership, Strategic Alignment, and more. He uses everyday language and vibrant custom visuals to make complex topics clear and understandable, and he provides audiences with practical information they can use. His sessions are highly rated by attendees and organizers alike.

Conference organizers, businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world invite Scott to speak.
He’s presented 89 talks and workshops at conferences and other events (public and private/corporate) across 25 countries.

Scott's newest engagement will be the DevDays Europe 2024 Conference, where he'll present “What Successful AI Development Teams Have in Common.” His talk draws from his work on AI projects as well as research from DARPA, Google, IBM, IEEE, Microsoft, Nvidia, Oracle, Software Engineering Institute, USAII, and other organizations.

๐Ÿ’ก AI
โ„น๏ธ https://bit.ly/dde2024
๐Ÿ“ Vilnius, Lithuania | Online
๐Ÿ—“ Tuesday, 21 May 2024
๐Ÿ•™ 10:00 a.m. Eastern European Time
๐ŸŽŸ https://devdays.lt

About the DevDays Europe 2024 Conference

DevDays Europe brings together internationally recognized speakers and developers to encourage excellence and innovation in the software development community. The conference will cover emerging technologies and best practices in the software development industry — regardless of technological platform or language — without commercial hype. It will run from May 20-21, 23-24. Conference sessions will take place in the dynamic ambiance of movie theater halls at the
Multikino Ozas (Multikino, Ozo str. 18, Vilnius, Lithuania). Visit https://devdays.lt to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

ScottGraffius-181024_1000x1000_152KB-lowres-sq

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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Short link for this article: https://bit.ly/dev-ai

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24313.07529

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



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University of California, San Diego Features Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ Work

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius Phases of Team Development Featured by UCSD - Tw Format - v2 - LwRes



The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Rady School of Management features Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ work in MGT 173 Project Management.

UCSD Features Phases of Team Development Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 1 - LwRes

The request for, and the granting of, a license for Graffius’ copyrighted ‘Phases of Team Development’ is shown above.

UCSD Features Phases of Team Development Work by Scott M Graffius - Excerpts - 2 - LwRes

Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ work and the respective UCSD course are shown above.

About Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’

Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

With permission/a license from Graffius, his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Adobe, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Academic Cooperation Association, Boston University, U.S. National Park Service, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, New Zealand Government, University of Galway Ireland, and many more.

Graffius initially developed his unique material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it.
The most current (2024) edition of his work is here.

Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. While each session is unique, the top topic is high performance teams. In those sessions, he leverages and expands upon on his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work. Sessions are dynamic, engaging, and packed with fresh insights and usable information. They’re highly rated by attendees and organizers alike. To book him for your conference or other event, complete a speaker engagement request form or email him.

ucsd-rady-lwres

About UCSD Rady School of Management Course - MGT 173 Project Management

UCSD describes MGT 173 Project Management at
https://catalog.ucsd.edu/courses/MGT.html as: "This course covers efficient techniques for managing health services projects, including both the technical aspects of project management as well as the human-capital management issues associated with blending administrative and technical staff with health-care professionals. Topics include scheduling methods, milestone setting, governmental regulations, resource allocation, interpersonal skills, and performing research and development projects—all with a health services focus."

ucsd-geisel-lwres

About UCSD

Recognized as one of the top 20 research universities worldwide, the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) culture of collaboration sparks discoveries that advance society and drive economic impact. UCSD is considered a Public Ivy—a public university perceived to provide a collegiate experience on the level of Ivy League universities. Its faculty, researchers, and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes as well as 3 Fields Medals, 8 National Medals of Science, 8 MacArthur Fellowships, and 3 Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine, and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Visit
https://ucsd.edu to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

ScottGraffius-181024_1000x1000_152KB-lowres-sq

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



black_spacer_lr_sq_v3

The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/ucsd-173

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.



custom - back to main page of blog


Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ Featured by Singapore Management University

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by Singapore Management University - Blg Hdr - LwRes



Singapore Management University, a publicly-funded private university in Singapore, models its education after the Wharton School. Its MGMT 330 - Business Capstone: The Design of Business course features Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ work.

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by Singapore Management University - Excerpt 1 - LwRes

A title page from course content is shown above.

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by Singapore Management University - Excerpt 2 - LwRes

And the page showing Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ is above.

About Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’


Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

With permission/a license from Graffius, his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work is used by businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities around the world. Examples include Yale University, IEEE, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Adobe, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Academic Cooperation Association, Boston University, U.S. National Park Service, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, New Zealand Government, University of Galway Ireland, and many more.

Graffius initially developed his unique material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it.
The most current (2024) edition of his work is here.

Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. While each session is unique, the top topic is high performance teams. In those sessions, he leverages and expands upon on his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work. Sessions are dynamic, engaging, and packed with fresh insights and usable information. They’re highly rated by attendees and organizers alike. To book him for your conference or other event, complete a speaker engagement request form or email him.

About Singapore Management University

A premiere university in Asia, Singapore Management University is internationally recognized for its world-class research and distinguished teaching. Its mission is to generate leading-edge research with global impact and to produce broad-based, creative, and entrepreneurial leaders for the knowledge-based economy. It models its education after the Wharton School. Visit
https://www.smu.edu.sg to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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The Five Most Popular Talks and Workshops

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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Scott M. Graffius is an Agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, award-winning author, and international public speaker. Content from his books, talks, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Cisco, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, Yale University, Adobe, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Boston University, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Galway Ireland, United States National Park Service, and others.

Conference organizers, businesses, professional associations, government agencies, and universities invite him to speak on topics at the intersection of Agile Project Management, Business, and Technology. To date, Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries. He uses everyday language and vibrant custom content to make complex topics clear and understandable, and he provides audiences with practical information they can use. His sessions are highly rated by attendees and organizers alike.

The top five talks and workshop topics are highlighted next.

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High Performance Teams

High Performance Teams is first on the list. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. The following provides a general overview.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on High Performance Teams may be called “Navigate the Phases of Team Development with Speed and Agility” or “Want Happier and More Productive Teams?” or another title.

  • Description: Help your teams go farther, faster! Perhaps you’re heard about the phases of team development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. But are you aware of the unique behaviors specific to each phase? What exactly should you do during each phase to help the team (Agile or otherwise) tackle challenges, make progress, and become successful? If you are a leader (or aspire to be one), a member of a team (or may be in one in the future), or are just looking to develop your skills, this talk (with a fresh angle: 0% theory, 100% real-world-based) will give you a practical framework with actionable tips for working in and leading teams successfully. You'll learn about the five phases—Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning—including detailed descriptions of each along with proven strategies for addressing challenges or issues which may occur along the way. You'll understand how to use the model to your advantage by effectively navigating all of the phases with speed and agility, from team set-up to the after-party! The presentation draws on the speaker’s first-hand, real-world experience, with his guidance supported by additional research, recommendations, and coverage from the Project Management Institute, IEEE, Google, NASA, and others.

  • Key learning benefits: This talk will help you develop and enhance the contributions you make to your organization by being able to: (1) Understand the five stages of team development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. (2) Learn the characteristics of each phase. (3) Apply proven strategies to help handle challenges or issues experienced by the team. By doing so, you'll advance the team's happiness, productivity, and success.


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Strategic Alignment

Strategic Alignment is second on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Strategic Alignment may be called “10 Ways to Score and Prioritize Project Proposals Based on Multiple Factors, Including Strategic Alignment” or “10 Ways to Achieve and Sustain Strategic Alignment” or another title.

  • Description: How does your organization assess proposals for new projects? Is there a well-defined scoring and prioritization process—based on alignment with the business’ strategic objectives and other key factors—to quickly and easily identify the objective value of each proposal (including how important it is relative to other initiatives)? If the answer is “no,” keep reading. If the answer is “yes,” you are likely to find practical information and examples in this talk to adapt and adopt to improve the process at your organization.

  • Key learning benefits: This talk will help you develop and enhance the contributions you make to your organization by being able to: (1) Understand the benefits of scoring and prioritizing project proposals based on strategic alignment and other key factors. (2) Identify selection and prioritization criteria appropriate for your unique organization, leveraging the flexible framework and some or all of the 10 factors presented during the talk. (3) Put the practical, actionable information presented to use. During the session, we will run an example project proposal through the process, step-by-step. And you will receive a summary "cheat sheet" digital download that you can reference as a guide to help implement or improve this process at your organization.


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Agile

Agile is third on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Agile may be called “Are You Realizing All the Benefits from Agile?” or “Agile Scrum Helps Innovators, Disruptors, and Entrepreneurs Develop and Deliver Products at Astounding Speed Which Drives Competitive Advantage” or another title.

  • Description: Organizations are increasingly embracing Agile to best meet their shifting business needs and successfully manage projects. Potential business benefits from Agile include faster delivery and ROI, rapid response to change, higher satisfaction, and continuous improvement. All of which supports innovation and helps drive competitive advantage. Are you realizing all of the benefits? This session will cover the full lifecycle of the most popular Agile approach, Scrum. You will be presented with practical information including top factors from successful implementations—based on the speaker's first-hand experience and 116 sources, including the PMI, IEEE, Google, Agile Alliance, and others—you can use to gain more benefits from Agile.

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Gain a high-level understanding of the Scrum framework-from vision through release. (2) Learn the roles, responsibilities, tools, and techniques unique to Scrum. (3) All of which are inclusive of top factors from successful implementations, which you can put to use to help you get more benefits from Agile.


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AI Development


Successful AI Development is fourth on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Successful AI Development may be called “What Successful AI Development Teams Have in Common” or “Fueling the Development of Innovative and Life-Changing AI Solutions” or another title.

  • Description: Artificial Intelligence has emerged as a transformative force across a growing number of industries, revolutionizing how we live, work, and interact. From improved medical diagnoses to self-driving cars, and more, AI systems have become integral to our daily lives. Behind these cutting-edge, life-changing solutions are AI teams with a combination of skills. This session reveals exactly how the fusion of technical skills and soft skills within AI teams fuels the successful development of innovative and effective solutions. Informed by “In the AI era, soft skills are the new hard skills” (from Artificial Intelligence and Its Impact on Business), “Soft skills are becoming a key focus” (from Computerworld), “Don’t underestimate the power of a team dynamic – your product becomes the result of it” (from Microsoft), and “Competencies like teamwork are crucial” (from MIT), this talk also delivers a deep-dive on essential team development skills based on the science of high-performing teams. Scott’s talk draws from his work with AI development teams as well as research and coverage from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Google, IBM, IEEE, Microsoft, Software Engineering Institute, and many others. The usable information can provide you, your teams, and your organization with a competitive advantage.

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Understand technical skills and soft skills leveraged by successful AI teams to develop innovative and effective solutions. (2) Understand the essential team development skills based on the science of high-performing teams. (3) Understand specific techniques including how to apply them to advance the happiness, productivity, and success of teams.


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Video Game Development

Successful Video Game Development is fifth on the list of the top five topics. Scott customizes each session to the audience and other factors, so each one is unique. A general overview follows.

  • Title: Talks or workshops on Successful Video Game Development may be called “The Science of High-Performance Video Game Development Teams” or “Level-Up Your Team: Science-Backed Strategies for High-Performance Video Game Development” or another title.

  • Description: Behind every great video game is a team of creative and technical wizards. Creators, storytellers, designers, artists, developers, testers, and others collaborate and leverage a diverse range of hard skills (also known as technical skills) and soft skills (also known as interpersonal skills) to craft an exceptional end-product. Of the many skills, one — a soft skill — is paramount. Activision Blizzard and other premiere developers and publishers of entertainment experiences identify teamwork as critical for the successful development of video games. Informed by Scott’s first-hand work with video game development teams as well as research and coverage from Activision Blizzard, Gameloft, International Game Developers Association, Microsoft, Rockstar Games, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Ubisoft, and others, this talk delivers a deep-dive on the essential teamwork skill based on the science of high- performing teams. The information can provide you, your teams, and your organization with a competitive advantage!

  • Key learning benefits: How you will benefit: (1) Understand that a confluence of both hard skills and soft skills (notably, teamwork) are crucial. (2) Learn the five phases of team development and recognize the identifiable characteristics of each phase. (3) Learn how to apply strategies to improve teams' efficacy, happiness, and success.


Those are the top five topics for talks and workshops.

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Before concluding this article, we’ll also point out a new topic which is becoming increasingly popular. It’s “Agile for Unicorns.” This session is for privately-held companies valued (or soon to be valued) at US $1 billion or more, and it’s limited to small groups at private/corporate events. To learn more, check out the information sheet:
https://scottgraffius.com/resources/Scott-M-Graffius---Public-Speaker---Example-Session---Agile-for-Unicorns---v24012907.pdf.

Visit Scott’s
Public Speaker page for a detailed listing of events, testimonials, and more.

Scott speaks around the world. To book him for your conference or other event, complete a
speaker engagement request form or email him.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


scott-m-graffius-on-x---sg-on-x-design-2---v-feb-7-2024---lwres

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

scott_m_graffius_agile_scrum_v22123007_lr_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

scott_m_graffius_agile_transformation_lr_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ Featured by The Manufacturers’ Alliance

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M. Graffius' 'Phases of Team Development' Featured by The Manufacturersโ€™ Alliance - 1 - LwRes



‘How to Create Genuine Trust in a Team’ by The Manufacturers’ Alliance emphasizes that trust is essential for high-performing teams, and it highlights how to develop that critical success factor. The article features Scott M. Graffius' ‘Phases of Team Development’ work.

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A zoomed out image is shown above.

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And a zoomed in visual is above.

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Graffius periodically updates his work. The most current (2024) edition of his 'Phases of Team Development' visual is shown above. Select
here for details.

About The Manufacturers’ Alliance

The Manufacturers’ Alliance is a purpose and values-led organization that inspires manufacturing leaders to break through the boundaries of possibility. Its services are aligned with the following four distinct pillars.

  • Thought Leadership Events: Its online and in-person events help ambitious manufacturing owners and leaders understand what it takes to run a great business, providing inspiration with a constant stream of new ideas.
  • Peer Groups: It fosters meeting and networking with peers from the manufacturing sector.
  • The Academy: This resource supports the development of leadership and management skills needed for the future of manufacturing.
  • Hands-on Support: It offers help from a team of experienced business leaders with wide-ranging skills gained from decades of experience in the manufacturing sector.

Visit
https://www.manufacturersalliance.co.uk to learn more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

ScottGraffius-181024_1000x1000_152KB-lowres-sq

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


Scott M Graffius on X - SG on X Design 2 - v Feb 7 2024 - LwRes

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

black_spacer_lr_sq_v3

About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Scrum_v22123007_LR_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



black_spacer_lr_sq_v3

About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

Scott_M_Graffius_Agile_Transformation_LR_1000x505

Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/trust-sg

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Should You Be Nasty or Nice in Negotiations?

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius - Negotiation - Nasty or Nice - X Format without Title - Jan 21 2024 - LwRes

A PDF of this article is here.

Note: When discussing moods and behaviors related to negotiations, the respective research uses the terms “angry” or “nasty,” contrasted with “happy” or “nice.” For that reason, this article uses those same terms. Also consider that an unhappy, irritated, or frustrated person may be labeled as “angry.” And a tough, difficult, or demanding person may be labeled as “nasty.”




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Introduction


Chances are that you’ve already participated in some form of negotiations in your personal or professional life and that you’ll do so in the future. Negotiation is defined as a discussion between two or more parties aimed at resolving points of difference, crafting outcomes to satisfy various interests, or otherwise establishing an agreement. Handling a job offer, asking for a promotion, and buying and selling property such as a car or a house are just a few examples of deals you may have executed. Enhancing your negotiation strategies, tactics, and skills can have a big payoff on the outcomes of future deals.


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Main Section of Article

What can you add to your arsenal to help you maximize value at your next visit to the bargaining table? How about this: Is it advantageous to be nice or nasty in a negotiation? “The Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness in Negotiations” — a study by Gerben A. Van Kleef and colleagues at the University of Amsterdam — uncovered the answer. Read on to gain insights from the work.

The study encompassed three experiments. The first experiment involved a computer-mediated negotiation in which participants couldn’t see their opponent. And participants were led to believe their counterpart was either happy or angry. The findings follow. Participants with an opponent who they thought was angry placed lower demands and made larger concessions than did participants with an opponent who they thought was happy.

The procedure for experiment 2 was similar to the first one. This one further explored the effect of the informed mood of negotiation counterparts. The results showed that participants used information on mood to infer their opponents’ limit and they adjusted their demands accordingly.

The third and final experiment examined the interplay between experienced and communicated emotion. It showed that angry communications (unlike happy ones) induced fear and thereby mitigated the effect of the counterpart’s experienced emotion.


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Conclusion

In conclusion, the study by Van Kleef and colleagues found that negotiators are influenced by their counterpart’s emotions. It showed that the expression of anger can be advantageous in some negotiation scenarios, challenging the “golden rule” that always being nice wins.

However, being angry or nasty doesn’t mean acting unethically. And if a person is simply acting a certain way, doing so could backfire if their counterpart sees through the display.

Based on the study and additional resources delineated in the references/sources section of this article, here are some considerations regarding behavior and mood during negotiations.

When to be nice in negotiations:

  • Long-term relationships: In repeated negotiations, fostering goodwill with friendly gestures like concessions or expressing empathy can benefit both parties in the long run. It builds trust and cooperation, creating a more positive environment for future deals.
  • Information exchange: When seeking information from your counterpart, a friendly approach encourages them to be open and share more readily. Creating a comfortable atmosphere lowers their guard and increases cooperation.
  • Concessions for compromise: When seeking a compromise, initiating friendliness can signal your willingness to concede and encourage reciprocation from the other party, leading to a mutually beneficial agreement.

When to be nasty in negotiations:

  • Short-term gains: In one-off negotiations, a strategic display of toughness (e.g., setting high demands, expressing firm resolve) can intimidate your opponent and pressure them into accepting less favorable terms.
  • Protecting resources: When facing an unfair or demanding adversary, a firm and assertive stance can help protect your resources and prevent exploitation.
  • Signaling strength: In situations where your bargaining power is unclear, projecting confidence and strength through assertive communication can deter the other party from taking advantage of you.

This article highlighted select valuable work on the nuances of negotiation behavior. For a deeper understanding, exploring the full research is highly recommended.

Scott M Graffius - Negotiation - Pxls - Jan 21 2024 - LwRes

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References/Sources

Select (partial) bibliography:

  • Barry, B. (1999). The Tactical Use of Emotion in Negotiation. Research on Negotiation in Organizations, 7: 93-121.
  • Clark, M.S., & Taraban, C.B. (1991). Reactions to and Willingness to Express Emotion in Two Types of Relationships. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27: 324-336.
  • Frijda, N.H. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Harvard Law School (2010, March 9). Should You be Nasty or Nice? Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School. Available at: https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/negotiation-skills-daily/should-you-be-nasty-or-nice.
  • Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (1999). Social Functions of Emotions at Four Levels of Analysis. Cognition and Emotion, 13: 505-521.
  • Hüffmeier, J., Freund, P. A., Zerres, A., Backhaus, K., & Hertel, G. (2014). Being Tough or Being Nice? A Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Hard- and Softline Strategies in Distributive Negotiations. Journal of Management, 40 (3): 866-892.
  • Pietroni, D., Van Kleef, G.A., De Dreu, C.K.W., & Pagliaro, S. (2008). Emotions as Strategic Information: Effects of Other’s Emotions on Fixed-Pie Perception, Demands and Integrative Behavior in Negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44: 1444-1454.
  • Reis, H.T., & Collins, W.A. (2004). Relationships, Human Behavior, and Psychological Science. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13: 233-237.
  • Schwarz, N., & Clore, G.L. (1983). Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-Being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45: 513-523.
  • Sinaceur, M., Adam, H., Van Kleef, G. & Galinsky, A. (2013, May 1). The advantages of being unpredictable: How emotional inconsistency extracts concessions in negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49: 498-508.
  • Thayer, S. (1980). The Effect of Facial Expression Sequence Upon Judgments of Emotion. Journal of Social Psychology, 111: 305-306.
  • Van Beest, I., Van Kleef, G.A., & Van Dijk, E. (2008). Get Angry, Get Out: The Interpersonal Effects of Anger Communication in Multiparty Negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44: 993-1002.
  • Van Kleef, G. A. (2009). How Emotions Regulate Social Life: The Emotions as Social Information (EASI) Model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18 (3): 184-188.
  • Van Kleef, G.A., De Dreu, C.K.W., & Manstead, A.S.R. (2004). The Interpersonal Effects of Anger and Happiness in Negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86: 57-76.
  • Voss, C. (2016). Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depended on It. New York, New York: Harper Business.

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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 22). Negotiation Alchemy: Turning Frustration into Fuel for Win-Win Outcomes. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/win-win.html.


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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:



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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/win-skill

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Scott M. Graffius’ Phases of Team Development: 2024 Update

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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A PDF of this article is here.

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Introduction


Informed by the research of Bruce W. Tuckman and Mary Ann C. Jensen, over 100 subsequent studies, and Scott M. Graffius’ first-hand professional experience with, and analysis of, team leadership and performance, Graffius created his ‘Phases of Team Development’ as a unique perspective and visual conveying the five phases of team development — Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning — inclusive of a graph showing how performance varies by phase, as well as the characteristics and strategies for each phase.

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

Graffius initially developed his unique material in 2008, and he periodically refreshes it. This article (including the accompanying visual) provides the 2024 update to his ‘Phases of Team Development’ work.

Graffius
work has “team development” in the title. Alternative terms — which may be interchangeable in the context of this article — include group development, group dynamics, team agility, team building, team coaching, team collaboration, teamcraft, team dynamics, team leadership, team optimization, team performance, team tradecraft, and teamwork.

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Five Phases of Team Development

1. Forming

Characteristics of the Forming phase include displaying eagerness, socializing, generally polite tone, sticking to safe topics, unclear about how one fits in, and some anxiety and questioning.

Strategies for Forming include taking the ‘lead,’ being highly visible, facilitating introductions, providing the ‘big picture,’ establishing clear expectations, communicating success criteria, and ensuring response times are quick.

2. Storming

Traits of the Storming phase include some resistance, lack of participation, conflict based on differences of opinions, competition, and high emotions.

Strategies for Storming include requesting and encouraging feedback, identifying issues and facilitating their resolution, normalizing matters, and building trust by honoring commitments.

3. Norming

Features of the Norming phase include developing cohesion; purpose and goals are well-understood; more confident; improved commitment; members are engaged and supportive; and relief, lowered anxiety.

Strategies for Norming include delivering feedback, recognizing individual and team efforts, providing learning/upskilling opportunities, and monitoring the ‘energy’ of the team.


4. Performing

Characteristics of the Performing phase include demonstrations of interdependence and self-management; high motivation, trust, and empathy; individuals defer to team needs; producing deliverables effectively; and consistent performance.

Strategies for Performing include ‘guiding from the side’ (minimal intervention), highlighting successes, and encouraging collective decision-making and problem-solving.

5. Adjourning

Typical traits of the Adjourning phase (also referred to as the Transitioning or Mourning phase) include potential sadness, and disbanding of temporary teams.

Strategies for Adjourning include communicating change, conducting a summative team evaluation via a retrospective or lessons learned session, recognizing individual and team efforts and achievements, and celebrating the team's accomplishments (a party/after-party).

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Conclusion

Project Managers, Scrum Masters, Agile Coaches, DevOps Leads, and other leaders can apply the information in this article and the accompanying visual to help handle challenges or issues experienced by teams. By doing so, they’ll advance the teams’ (and their own) happiness, productivity, and success.

This article provided a brief overview of the five phases of team development. Scott M. Graffius presents dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on this topic and more at conferences and other events (public and private/corporate) around the world. To learn more, visit
here. For booking information, please complete a speaker engagement request form or email Scott M. Graffius.

If you're looking for additional information on this article (such as references/sources, citation details, or permission request information), read on.

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Graffius’ Research is Widely Cited, Featured, and Used

Businesses, scientists, journalists, professional associations, government agencies, universities, and others around the world have featured and used prior — 2023 and earlier — editions of Scott M. Graffius’ ‘Phases of Team Development’ material. Here are a few examples:

  • Academic Cooperation Association
  • Adobe
  • American Management Association
  • Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
  • Bayer
  • Boston University
  • CodeMonk
  • Dagen
  • Deimos Aerospace
  • Erste Bank
  • FSU College of Medicine
  • Hasso Plattner Institute (Hasso-Plattner-Institut für Digital Engineering GmbH)
  • IEEE
  • Innovify
  • Life Sciences Trainers & Educators Network (LTEN)
  • London South Bank University
  • New Zealand Government
  • Prima Resource
  • Singapore University of Social Sciences
  • Technical University of Munich
  • Torrens University Australia
  • UK Sports Institute
  • University of Galway Ireland
  • University of Graz Austria
  • University of Waterloo
  • US National Park Service
  • Virginia Tech
  • Warsaw University of Technology
  • Yale University
  • Zittau/Gorlitz University of Applied Sciences
  • And many more

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References/Sources

Select (partial) bibliography:

  1. Activision Blizzard (2022, September 9). Tackling the Talent Shortage: Identifying the Skills Critical for Game Development. Available at: https://www.activisionblizzard.com/content/atvi/activisionblizzard/ab-touchui/ab/web/en/newsroom/2022/09/tackling-the-talent-shortage.html.
  2. Alfateh, Maryam Ali Abu; Messaadia, Mourad; and Ali, Mazen (2023, September). Exploring the Dynamics of Team Formation in Human-Artificial Intelligence Collaboration. In 2023 International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Applications (DASA), pp. 384-388, DOI: 10.1109/DASA59624.2023.10286788.
  3. Alford, J. (2019, April 11). Our Co-Production Journey: From Sandpits to Bird Boxes. London, United Kingdom: Imperial College London.
  4. Ali, A. J., Fuenzalida, J., Gómez, M., & Williams, M. J. (2021, June). Four Lenses on People Management in the Public Sector: An Evidence Review and Synthesis. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 37 (2): 335-366.
  5. Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute (2021). APH Quality Handbook. Amsterdam: Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute.
  6. Bandai Namco (n.d.). Teamwork Makes the Dream Work. Available at: https://bandainamcomobile.com/news/power-up-your-teamwork-how-bandai-namco-mobile-builds-stronger-teams.
  7. Bellet, C., De Neve, J., & Ward, G. (2019 October 14). Does Employee Happiness Have an Impact on Productivity? Saïd Business School WP 2019-13. Oxford, UK: Oxford University.
  8. Bennett, M., Gadlin, H., & Marchand, C. (2018). Collaboration Team Science: Field Guide. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health.
  9. Berlin School of Business and Innovation (2022, September 22). How Do Technical Abilities Combined with Leadership Skills Fuel Career Growth? Available at: https://www.berlinsbi.com/blog/career-advice/how-do-technical-abilities-combined-with-leadership-skills-fuel-career-growth.
  10. Brief, A. P. & Weiss, H. M. (2022, February). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53 (1): 279-307.
  11. Cisco (2019). Next-Generation IT Talent Strategies: How CIOs Can Close the Skills Gap and Drive True Business Transformation. Available at: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/en_uk/solutions/executive-perspectives/pdf/ITTalent.pdf.
  12. Couture, N. (2016, October 27). A Note About Teams. CIO. Boston, MA: International Data Group (IDG).
  13. Daly, L. (2002). Identify Your Project Management Team’s Level of Development and Facilitate It to Success. Paper presented at Project Management Institute Annual Seminars and Symposium, San Antonio, TX. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
  14. Dechurch, Leslie; & Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica. (2010). The Cognitive Underpinnings of Effective Teamwork: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 95: 32-53.
  15. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (2023, February 23). Episode 65: A Sprint to Tomorrow, Powered by Teamwork [Podcast]. Available at: https://www.darpa.mil/news-events/2023-02-23a.
  16. Deloitte (2017). Digital Era Technology Operating Models, Volume 2. New York, NY: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited.
  17. DevOps Institute (2021). 2021 Upskilling Enterprise DevOps Skills Report. Boca Raton, FL: DevOps Institute.
  18. Dickinson, A.; & Stoneman, K. (1989). Individual Performance as a Function of Group Contingencies and Group Size. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 10: 131-150.
  19. Dolev, Niva, & Itzkovich, Yariv (2020). In the AI Era, Soft Skills are the New Hard Skills. In: Artificial Intelligence and Its Impact on Business, pp. 55-77. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  20. Dzombak, Rachel, & Palat, Jay (2021, August 30). 5 Ways to Start Growing an AI-Ready Workforce. Pittsburgh, PA: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University.
  21. Elliott, Joshua (n.d.). Artificial Social Intelligence for Successful Teams (ASIST). Arlington, VA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
  22. Exceptional Agility (2023, January 1). Making Teams More Agile: Strategies and Benefits. Available at: https://exceptionalagility.com/blog/files/teams.html.
  23. Finkelstein, S. (2017, October 29). Why Companies Should Hire Teams, Not Individuals. The Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: The Wall Street Journal.
  24. Forbes (2018, April 23). How to Fast-Track Any Team to Success. Forbes. New York, NY: Forbes.
  25. Forbes (2012, October 27). How the iPad Mini is Defining Tim Cook’s Apple. Forbes. New York, NY: Forbes.
  26. Gartner (2020, December 15). How to Staff Your AI Team. Available at: https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/how-to-staff-your-ai-team.
  27. Glover, P. (2012, March 13). Team Conflict: Why It’s a Good Thing. Fast Company. New York, NY: Mansueto Ventures.
  28. Gorman, Austin (2023, April 27). How to Strengthen Your Soft Skills for AI and the Future of Work. Fast Company. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90887540/how-to-strengthen-your-soft-skills-for-ai-and-the-future-of-work.
  29. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, October 13). The Science of High-Performance Game Development Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the W Love Games International Video Game Development Conference 2023 - Helsinki, Finland. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.28602.16326. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28602.16326.
  30. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, July 15). Successful Video Game Development Teams Leverage an Extensive Range of Hard Skills and Soft Skills. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/gamedev.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31205.17124.
  31. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, April 26). The Science of High-Performance Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the DevOps Institute’s SKILup Day 2023 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.15888.28169. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.15888.28169.
  32. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, January 9). Use the Phases of Team Development (Based on Bruce W. Tuckman's Model of Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning) to Help Teams Grow and Advance: 2023 Update. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.10720.35846. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.10720.35846.
  33. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, June 29). What Successful AI Teams Have in Common [Presentation]. Talk delivered at Conf42 Quantum Computing 2023 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.29382.45120. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29382.45120.
  34. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, May 1). Fueling the Development of Innovative and Life-Changing AI Solutions [Presentation]. Talk delivered to an audience of Technology professionals (including Data Scientists, Machine Learning Engineers, Data Engineers, AI Researchers, Project Managers, Business Analysts, UX Designers, Software Developers, Cloud Architects, Data Privacy and Security Specialists, and others involved or interested in AI) at a private event in Mountain View, California, United States. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.27956.73601. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27956.73601.
  35. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, February 4). Team Development Tradecraft: A Source of Competitive Advantage [Workshop]. Session at private event in Adelaide, Australia. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14092.80002.
  36. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, May 13). Want Happier and More Productive DevOps Teams? [Presentation]. Talk delivered at DevOpsDays Geneva, Switzerland 2022 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.22252.85127. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22252.85127.
  37. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, February 20). But First, the Team! [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the Brno, Czech Republic DevConf.CZ 2021 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.29016.72964. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29016.72964.
  38. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, June 21). DevOps and Team Leadership [Workshop]. Session at private event in Las Vegas, NV. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15380.22401.
  39. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, May 13). But First, the Team! [Presentation]. Lecture delivered at DevOps Pro Europe 2021 Conference. Based and simulcast live from Vilnius, Lithuania. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30524.36481.
  40. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, November 10). An Error Was Introduced Into the Seventh Edition of 'A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).’ Los Angeles, CA: Scott M. Graffius.
  41. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, November 8). Bruce Tuckman’s Model (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning) is Highly Relevant and Beneficial, But It Doesn’t Please Everyone. Los Angeles, CA: Scott M. Graffius.
  42. Graffius, Scott M. (2021, October 5). Navigate the Phases of Team Development with Speed and Agility for Happier and More Productive Teams [Presentation]. Talk delivered at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Day 2021 Conference. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 10.13140/RG.2.2.20055.19365. DOI link: https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.20055.19365.
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  44. Graffius, Scott M. (2018, October 18). Agile Scrum Helps Innovators, Disruptors, and Entrepreneurs Develop and Deliver Products at Astounding Speed Which Drives Competitive Advantage [Presentation]. Talk delivered at Techstars Startup Week Conference. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25009.12647.
  45. Himmelstein, D. (2018, January 26). Team Cycles and Culture Development. San Jose, CA: Acer, Inc.
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  50. KPMG (2017). The Digital Fund, Season 2. Amstelveen, Netherlands: KPMG International.
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How to Cite This Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 8). Scott M. Graffius
Phases of Team Development: 2024 Update. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/teams-2024.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28629.40168.

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Permission Request Information

To request permission to use the
‘Phases of Team Development’ visual shown at the top of this article or any other material from this publication, email Scott M. Graffius. If your request is approved, Graffius will give you an authorization/license and, if applicable, high-resolution files of the visual.

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About Scott M. Graffius

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Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:



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Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

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Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow step-by-step instructions,
Scott M. Graffius's award-winning Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/teams-2024

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© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.


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Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

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A PDF of this article is
here.


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Introduction

Individuals and businesses use the Internet and other forms of digital communication to reach and engage target audiences and promote content. That’s digital marketing. It includes email, social media, web-based advertising, and text and multimedia messages.

A rapidly expanding component of digital marketing is social media marketing. It involves posting content on social media platforms such as Snapchat, X (formerly known as Twitter), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs. The platforms enable people to connect with family and friends, share information and ideas, and access news and entertainment. The platforms also play a vital role in business by providing companies with direct channels to reach and engage with their target audiences. When well-executed, social media marketing delivers multiple benefits, including:

  • Engagement with a global audience — there are 4,950,000,000 (4.95 billion) active social media users worldwide.B1
  • Improved brand and marketplace awareness and reach.
  • Enhanced customer engagement.
  • Increased website traffic.
  • Improved search engine rankings.
  • And more.

scott m graffius - social media half-life definition - tw format - v dec 26 2023 - LwRes

When content is published online, relevance and engagement have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). Data can help inform strategic and tactical decisions, such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time.B2 For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. This article provides the update for 2024.

Reports by others on the shelf life of social media are often based on the experience of one person, one organization, or one limited set of data. With any of those common limitations, findings are at risk of being non-representative, inaccurate, or unreliable.

It’s important to have a broad set of data from multiple sources. In addition to generating results that are more likely to be appropriately representative, accurate, and reliable, this approach provides a more complete picture and helps identify trends. Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024” — this research report — is built on data from 37 sources.A

Based on an analysis of data from 37 diverse sources,A this report reveals the average lifespan (half-life) for posts on Snapchat, X, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs.

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Main Section of Article

As detailed next, the half-life of posts varies by social media platform.

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Snapchat

Snapchat

Snapchat is a multimedia instant messaging app and service developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc. A distinguishing feature of the platform is that pictures and messages are usually only available for a short time before they become inaccessible to their recipients. Snapchat has 750,000,000 (750 million) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Snapchat - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Snapchat posts is 0 minutes.A Exceptions apply. Snapchat messages may disappear instantly or live up to 24 hours (even longer in certain cases) depending on the type of message, user settings, and other details.

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Snapchat for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).A
  • 2023: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).B4
  • 2022: 0 minutes (exceptions apply).B5


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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - X

X

X (formerly known as Twitter) is a microblogging and social networking service owned by X Holdings II, Inc. (a wholly owned subsidiary of X Holdings I, Inc., wholly owned by Elon Musk), on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". X has 666,000,000 (666 million) active users.B3 (Note: The data source is held in high regard. Some other organizations report a lower value.)

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - X - Rev - LwRes

The average half-life duration for tweets is 43 minutes.A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Twitter for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 43 minutes.A
  • 2023: 24 minutes.B4
  • 2022: 23 minutes.B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Facebook

Facebook

Facebook is an online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. It's the third most visited website in the world. Facebook has 3,030,000,000 (3.03 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Facebook - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Facebook posts is 76 minutes (= 1.27 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Facebook for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 76 minutes.A
  • 2023: 105 minutes.B4
  • 2022: 60 minutes.B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Instagram

Instagram

Instagram is a photo and video-sharing service owned by Meta Platforms. The service allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Users can browse other users’ content by tag and location, view trending content, like photos, and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed. Instagram has 2,000,000,000 (2.00 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Instagram - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Instagram posts is 1,185 minutes (= 19.75 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Instagram for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 1,185 minutes (= 19.75 hours).A
  • 2023: 1,200 minutes (= 20.00 hours).B4
  • 2022: 1,170 minutes (= 19.50 hours).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - LinkedIn

LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented online service. It's a wholly-owned subsidiary of Microsoft. LinkedIn claims to have 875,000,000+ (875 million) users.B6 However, it does not report how many of those users are active users. It’s estimated that 424,000,000 (424 million) are active users.B7

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - LinkedIn - LwRes

The average half-life duration for LinkedIn posts is 1,458 minutes (= 24.30 hours).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on LinkedIn for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 1,458 minutes (= 24.30 hours).A
  • 2023: 1,440 minutes (= 24.00 hours).B4
  • 2022: 1,440 minutes (= 24.00 hours).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - YouTube

YouTube

YouTube is an online video-sharing platform. It's owned by Google, and it's the second most visited website, after Google Search. YouTube has 2,490,000,000 (2.49 billion) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - YouTube - LwRes

The average half-life duration for YouTube posts is 12,717 minutes (= 8.83 days).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on YouTube for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 12,717 minutes (= 211.95 hours = 8.83 days).A
  • 2023: 12,672 minutes (= 211.20 hours = 8.80 days).B4
  • 2022: 8,640 minutes (= 144.00 hours = 6.00 days).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Pinterest

Pinterest


Pinterest is an image-sharing service designed to enable the saving and discovery of information (specifically "ideas") on the internet using images — and on a smaller scale, videos — in the form of pinboards. The platform is operated by Pinterest, Inc. It has 465,000,000 (465 million) active users.B3

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Pinterest - LwRes

The average half-life duration for Pinterest posts is 164,518 minutes (= 3.76 months).A

Algorithms and other factors on platforms can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on Pinterest for 2024 along with the last two annual editions of this report:

  • 2024: 164,518 minutes (= 2,741.97 hours = 114.25 days = 16.32 weeks = 3.76 months).A
  • 2023: 164,270 minutes (= 2,737.83 hours = 114.08 days = 16.30 weeks = 3.76 months).B4
  • 2022: 164,270 minutes (= 2,737.83 hours = 114.08 days = 16.30 weeks = 3.76 months).B5

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Scott M Graffius - Lifespan Halflife of Social Media Posts - 2024 - Blog Sections - 1000x250 - Blogs

Blogs

Blogs (a truncation of "weblogs") are discussion or informational websites consisting of discrete, often diary-style entries. Up until 2009, blogs were usually the work of individuals and each typically covered a single topic. In the 2010s, multi-author blogs (MABs) from media outlets and others emerged. In addition to featuring the writings of multiple authors, MABs often span a range of topics. It is estimated that there are over 600,000,000 (600 million) blogs.B8

Scott M Graffius - Lifespan HalfLife of Social Media Posts - 2024 Update - PTC Style - v23100707 - Sq - Blogs - LwRes

The average half-life duration for blog posts is 1,022,997 minutes (= 1.95 years).A

The functionality of blogs and other factors can change over time, potentially impacting the average half-life duration for posts. For comparison, here’s data on blogs for 2024 along with the prior annual edition of this report (note: this research started reporting on blogs in 2023):

  • 2024: 1,022,997 minutes (1.95 years).A
  • 2023: 1,051,200 minutes (2.00 years).B4

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Conclusion

Conclusion

Social media platforms — such as Snapchat, X, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, YouTube, Pinterest, and blogs — enable people to connect with family and friends, share information and ideas, and access news and entertainment. The platforms also provide organizations with direct channels to reach and engage with their target audiences.

The relevance and engagement of posts on social media platforms have a limited lifespan. An advantageous objective metric is half-life. It’s the time it takes for a post to receive half of its total engagement (such as likes, shares, and comments). In 2018, Scott M. Graffius first published data on the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts. Algorithms and other factors on platforms change over time. For that reason, Graffius periodically updates the analysis. This report, which is based on half-life data from 37 sources, provides an update for 2024.

Social media analytics provide valuable insights that can support efforts to level-up engagement and results.B9,B10,B11,B12,B13,B14,B15 Data on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts, for example, can help inform strategic and tactical decisions such as the frequency and scheduling of posts.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Coverage

Graffius’ Research is Widely Cited

Scientists, researchers, journalists, academics, YouTubers, podcasters, SEO experts, analysts, businesses, and others have featured and used prior — 2023 and earlier — editions of Scott M. Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” research. Here are a few examples:

  • Bensley, Robert J., & Brookins-Fisher, Jodi (2023, December 14). Community and Public Health Education Methods: A Practical Guide—Fifth Edition. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. [The authors cover Graffius’ work in Chapter 10 (Using Social Media) and list Graffius’ work as reference number 84 on page 256. A link to the publication at Google Books is here: https://bit.ly/cphem-5.]
  • Berkessel, Juergen (2021, October 27). How Evergreen Posting on Social Media for Podcasters Creates Growth. Season 1, Episode 9 of the Podcasting Strategy Show. Available at: https://polymash.com/evergreen-posting. [The podcast references Graffius’ research. Show notes include Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual as well as a hyperlink to Graffius’ full report.]
  • Burton, Taylor (2022, November 2). Social Media Marketing: Leveraging LinkedIn. Pennsylvania Bar Institute. Available at: https://go.pbi.org/blog/social-media-marketing-leveraging-linkedin. [In the article, “LinkedIn posts are shown to have a longer lifespan” is hyperlinked to Graffius’ research.]
  • Center for Direct Marketing (2022, September 27). What Is the Average Lifespan of a Blog or Social Media Post? Available at: https://dmcenter.com/lifespan-of-a-post. [The article include data from Graffius and a hyperlink to his research.]
  • Chowdhary, Tanish (2023, March 21). 13 Best Twitter Thread Tools to Go Viral in 2023. Geekflare. Available at: https://geekflare.com/best-twitter-thread-tools. [The article includes Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) (2023, June 15). The Power of Social Media and How to Use It. 10th CEWEP Waste-to-Energy Congress, 14th - 16th June 2023, Berlin. Available at: https://www.cewep.eu/congress2023presentations/ and https://www.cewep.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/06/4.1-Monika-Michalska.pdf. [CEWEP Congress presentation slide 9 featured Graffius’ visual, representing a summary of his research findings.]
  • Degraux, Xavier (2022, November 5). Quelle est la Durée d’un Post sur Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn. Available at: https://www.xavierdegraux.be/quelle-est-la-duree-dun-post-sur-twitter-instagram-linkedin. [In his article, Xavier Degraux — a social networks and content marketing consultant based in Belgium — discussed Graffius' work and provided a hyperlink to the research. Here's the title in English: How Long is a Post on Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn.]
  • Encompass Online Marketing (2023, March 15). How Often Should You Publish New Content? Available at: https://encompassonline.ca/blog/how-often-should-you-publish-new-content. [Among other points, the article references the lifespan of tweets and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Fallah, Georges (2023, December 18). The Best Times to Post on Social Media. Available at: https://www.vbout.com/blog/the-best-times-to-post-on-social-media. [The article has hyperlinks to Graffius’ research.]
  • Gebauer, Susanna (2022, October 25). Twitter Scheduling: How to Schedule Tweets for More Impact. Available at: https://susannagebauer.com/blog/twitter-scheduling/. [The article includes a link to Graffius' research.]
  • Geyser, Werner (2023, September 20). 34 Mind-blowing Pinterest Stats for 2023. Influencer Marketing Hub. Available at: https://influencermarketinghub.com/pinterest-stats. [The article references the durations of “three months” and provides a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • GoDaddy (2023, February 20). How to Do Social Media: A Guide for Small Businesses and Entrepreneurs. Available at: https://www.godaddy.com/resources/skills/how-to-do-social-media. [In discussing the lifespan of tweets, the article provides a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Gotch, Nathan (2023, December 4). How to Start an SEO Business (2024 Update). Available at: https://www.gotchseo.com/start-seo-company/. [The article includes Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Hawes, C. W. (2023, January 24). Social Media Half-Life. Available at: https://www.cwhawes.com/social-media-half-life. [The article identifies Graffius’ research and has a hyperlink to it.]
  • Lin, Yunduan, & Wang, Mengxin, & Zhang, Heng, & Zhang, Renyu, & Shen, Zuo-Jun Max (2021, June 9; revised 2023, June 28). Content Promotion for Online Content Platforms with the Diffusion Effect. SSRN. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3863104 and https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3863104. [The scientific paper mentions Graffius’ work, and it delineates his research in the References section.]
  • McErlain-Naylor, Stuart (2022, March 24). Social Media for Academia - All You Need to Know [Video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ka88MxZbU8o. [At timestamp 13:59 in the video, Dr. Stuart McErlain-Naylor displays a visual which summarizes the 2022 edition of Graffius’ research.]
  • MeetEdgar (2023, April 2). Everything You Need to Know About Repeating Social Media Content. Available at: https://meetedgar.com/blog/repeating-social-media-content. [This article from social media management tool company MeetEdgar discusses the lifespan of posts and it has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Memom, Alafiya (2023, June 14). Master the Art of Using Pinterest for Blogging in 2023. ContentStudio. Available at: https://blog.contentstudio.io/pinterest-for-blogging. [The article rounds up the half-life of Pinterest pins as “4 months” and it includes a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Metricool (2023, October 31). YouTube Marketing in 2023. Available at: https://metricool.com/youtube-marketing. [The article includes “According to Scott Graffius’s data ...” and a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Patel, Neil (2023, May 23). 18 Powerful Twitter Marketing Tips [That Actually Work]. Neil Patel. Available at: https://neilpatel.com/blog/twitter-marketing-tips. [In the article, “The average lifespan of one tweet” has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Pitzalis, Josh (2022, November 21). Finding Social Media Calendar Ideas for Twitter. Chirr App. Available at: https://getchirrapp.com/how-to/find. [The article references the half-life of a tweet and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Pugalia, Akash, & Lalani, Farah (2023, September 29). Digital Safety: How a Multi-Faceted Approach Can Help Tackle Real-World Harm. World Economic Forum. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2023/09/digital-safety-multi-faceted-approach-tackle-real-world-harm. [The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) included data by Graffius on the half-life of social media. The World Economic Forum covered that PNAS study in their article.]
  • Rainey, Clint (2023, August 15). Social Media’s Toxic Impact Can Last Up to 8 Days. This Behavioral Scientist’s Solution Might Surprise You. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/90939081/social-media-toxic-impact-content-moderation-solution-behavior-science. [The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) included Graffius’ research data on the half-life of social media. Fast Company covered that PNAS publication — and summarized Graffius’ data from it — in their article.]
  • Rynek Pro (2023, June 26). Dล‚ugoล›ฤ‡ ลปycia Postów (Half-Life) w Mediach Spoล‚ecznoล›ciowych w 2023 Roku. Available at: https://rynek.pro/half-life-dlugosc-zycia-postow/#pll_switcher. [Rynek Pro, a Poland-based advertising agency, featured Graffius’ research in their article. Here’s the title in English: Life Expectancy of Posts (Half-Life) in Social Media in 2023.]
  • Schneider, Philipp J., & Rizoiu, Marian-Andrei (2023, August 22). The Effectiveness of Moderating Harmful Online Content. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120 (34): e2307360120. Available at: https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.2307360120. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2307360120. [The scientific paper references Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” research and uses his data.]
  • Strozyk, Kaylee (2023, November 3). 11 Tips on How to Use Pinterest for Real Estate. Fit Small Business. Available at: https://fitsmallbusiness.com/how-to-use-pinterest-for-real-estate-agents. [The article references that the half-life of Pinterest pins is “about 3.75 months.” Selecting the respective hyperlink brings up Graffius’ research.]
  • Thailand TV News (2022, August 16). Half-Life of Each Social Media Post. Available at: https://thailandtv.news/half-life-of-each-social-media-post-thumbsup. [The article incorporates data from Graffius’ work and it has a hyperlink to his research.]
  • The Tech Reps (2023, January 23). SEO or Social Media Marketing, Which is Better for Sales? [video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVmQdHDXCrw. [The Tech Reps used Graffius’ “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts” visual as the background image in their video.]
  • Two Rivers Marketing (2020, December 9). 8 Social Media Channels and Tactics to Consider Adding to Your Marketing Mix. Available at: https://www.tworiversmarketing.com/blog/8-social-media-channels-and-tactics-to-consider-adding-to-your-marketing-mix. [The article references the lifespan of posts and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • Walters, Christy (2023, May 4). How To Curate Content for LinkedIn: Handpick Your Next Post. CopyPress. Available at: https://www.copypress.com/kb/social-media-promotion/curate-content-for-linkedin. [The article discusses the lifespan of a LinkedIn post and has a hyperlink to Graffius’ research.]
  • And many more.

Graffius appreciates the coverage of his research.

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References/Sources

References/sources are organized into two sections - A and B.

A. Here are the sources related to the lifespan (half-life) of social media posts:

  • A1. Adobe
  • A2. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
  • A3. Bit(dot)ly
  • A4. Business Insider
  • A5. Business Standard
  • A6. Cornell University
  • A7. Emeritus
  • A8. Espirian
  • A9. Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions
  • A10. Fanbooster (Traject)
  • A11. Fast Company
  • A12. Forbes
  • A13. Google
  • A14. Halverson Group
  • A15. IEEE
  • A16. Ignite Social Media
  • A17. Kinsta
  • A18. Klout
  • A19. Later
  • A20. Moz
  • A21. New York Times
  • A22. Pinterest
  • A23. Royal Town Planning Institute
  • A24. Science(dot)org
  • A25. Sculpt - B2B Social Media Agency
  • A26. Simply Measured
  • A27. Snapchat
  • A28. Social Media Marketing
  • A29. Social Media University—Global
  • A30. Tapp Network
  • A31. TechniqueHow
  • A32. The Online Advertising Guide
  • A33. Université de Genève
  • A34. University of Akron
  • A35. Washington Post
  • A36. WebFX
  • A37. Wiselytics

B. Here are the references for additional information (such as the number of active users on platforms, etc.; see section A for sources related to the half-life of posts):

  • B1. Statista (2023, August 31). Social Media - Statistics and Facts.
  • B2. Trivette, Hannah (2022, October 14). A Guide to Social Media Algorithms and SEO. Forbes.
  • B3. Statista (2023, October). Most Popular Social Networks Worldwide as of October 2023.
  • B4. Graffius, Scott M. (2023, January 1). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2023. Available at: https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-2023.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19783.98722.
  • B5. Graffius, Scott M. (2022, January 5). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2022. Available at: https://www.scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-2022.html.
  • B6. LinkedIn.
  • B7. Macready, Hannah (2023, February 22). 47 LinkedIn Statistics You Need to Know in 2023. Hootsuite.
  • B8. Ong, Si Quan (2023, January 27). 59 Blogging Statistics for 2023.
  • B9. Colicev, Anatoli, & Malshe, Ashwin, & Pauwels, Koen, & O'Connor, Peter (2018). Improving Consumer Mindset Metrics and Shareholder Value Through Social Media: The Different Roles of Owned and Earned Media. Journal of Marketing, 82 (1): 37-56.
  • B10. Collier, Azure (2017, April 28). How to Create a Social Media Posting Schedule. Constant Contact.
  • B11. IBM (n.d.). What is Social Media Analytics. Available at: https://www.ibm.com/topics/social-media-analytics.
  • B12. Kanuri, V. K., & Chen, Y., & Sridhar, S. (2018). Scheduling Content on Social Media: Theory, Evidence, and Application. Journal of Marketing, 82 (6): 89-108.
  • B13. Liadeli, G., & Sotgiu, F., & Verlegh, P. W. J. (2023). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Brands' Owned Social Media on Social Media Engagement and Sales. Journal of Marketing, 87 (3): 406-427.
  • B14. Perreault, Marie-Catherine, & Mosconi, Elaine (2018). Social Media Engagement: Content Strategy and Metrics Research Opportunities. Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: 3568-3577.
  • B15. Trunfio, Mariapina, & Rossi, Simona (2021). Conceptualising and Measuring Social Media Engagement: A Systematic Literature Review. Italian Journal of Marketing, 2021 (3):267-292.

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How to Cite this Article

Graffius, Scott M. (2024, January 1). Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024. Available at:
https://scottgraffius.com/blog/files/social-24.html. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21043.60965.

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Scott_M_Graffius_-_Blog_Spacer_-_v23111107_-_Permission

Permission Request Information

To request permission to use the “Lifespan (Half-Life) of Social Media Posts: Update for 2024” visual shown at the top of this article or any other material from this publication,
contact Scott M. Graffius. If your request is approved, Graffius will give you an authorization/license and, if applicable, high-resolution files of the visual.

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Post-Publication Notes

At the time of publication, a graphic on the average lifespan (half-life) of posts on X indicated “7.71667” under hours. That typo was corrected to read “0.71667.” The change was implemented in this article on March 25, 2024.

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About Scott M. Graffius


Scott M Graffius - Generated 1 Point 9 Billion USD - v Dec 27 2023 G - LwRes

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, multi-award-winning author, and international public speaker. Founder and CEO of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™, he has generated over $1.9 billion for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He delights audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops on agile project management, AI, Tech leadership, video game development, strategic alignment, the science of high performance teams, and more. To date, he's presented sessions at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


follow-scott-m-graffius-on-twitter---v22122107-1000x1000-lr---sq

Scott M Graffius - Impact_com Platform for Influencers and Affiliates - v April 7 2024 - rev April 10 2024 - LwRes

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

scott_m_graffius_agile_scrum_v22123007_lr_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow instructions, the multi award-winning
Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions book by Scott M. Graffius (Chris Hare and Colin Giffen, Technical Editors) helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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About
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change

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Thriving in today's marketplace frequently depends on making a transformation to become more agile. Those successful in the transition enjoy faster delivery speed and ROI, higher satisfaction, continuous improvement, and additional benefits.

Based on actual events,
Agile Transformation: A Brief Story of How an Entertainment Company Developed New Capabilities and Unlocked Business Agility to Thrive in an Era of Rapid Change provides a quick (60-90 minute) read about a successful agile transformation at a multinational entertainment and media company, told from the author's perspective as an agile coach.

The award-winning book by
Scott M. Graffius is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.



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The short link for this article is: https://bit.ly/life-2024

(Coming soon) Posts related to this article are on ResearchGate, LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, and other platforms.

Visuals JPG1 and JPG2 and PNG

© Copyright 2024 Scott M. Graffius. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without the express written permission of Scott M. Graffius.





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Scott M. Graffius Delighted Audiences at 89 Conferences and Other Events Across 25 Countries

BY SCOTT M. GRAFFIUS | ScottGraffius.com

Scott M Graffius Presented 89 Talks and Workshops Across 25 Countries - v Dec 24 2023 - LwRes



Scott M. Graffius is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, thinker, creator, award-winning author, and international public speaker. Content from his books, talks, and more have been featured and used by Microsoft, Oracle, Cisco, Project Management Institute, IEEE, National Academy of Sciences, Yale University, Adobe, Torrens University Australia, UK Sports Institute, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Boston University, Bayer, Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Galway Ireland, United States National Park Service, and many more.

Conference organizers, businesses, professional associations, governments, and universities invite him to speak on Agile Project Management, DevOps/Tech, Entertainment, Game Development, Gov Tech, InfoSec, R&D (including AI), Strategic Alignment, High Performance Teams, and more.


Scott M Graffius - 10 Topics - for Blog - LwRes

To date, Graffius has presented talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries, including: Armenia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States.

Scott M Graffius - 25 Countries - for Blog - LwRes

Here's a list of Graffius' 89 presentations to date (most recent shown first):

  1. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท | Private event
  2. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ | W Love Games International Video Game Development Conference 2023 - Helsinki
  3. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Conf42 Quantum Computing Conference
  4. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  5. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | DevOps Institute's SKILup Day
  6. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ด | Private event
  7. 2023 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ | Private event
  8. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  9. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡ด | Private event
  10. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ | Private event
  11. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  12. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  13. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ญ | DevOpsDays Geneva 2022 Conference
  14. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  15. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Microsoft 365 Virtual Marathon 2022 Conference
  16. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ | BSides Vancouver 2022 Cybersecurity Conference
  17. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  18. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ต | Agile Nepal 2022 Conference
  19. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | D.C. Cybersecurity Professionals
  20. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช | Ireland Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  21. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท | Greece Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  22. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Inland Empire Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  23. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event
  24. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡บ | Budapest Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  25. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ | Private event
  26. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  27. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช | Microsoft #TeamsCommunityDay 2022
  28. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Delaware Valley Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  29. 2022 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ช | UAE Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  30. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  31. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  32. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | DevOps Experience 2021 Conference
  33. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡ฒ | Frug'Agile Conference Armenia 2021
  34. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  35. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | IEEE Day 2021
  36. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท | Private event
  37. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | BSides Newcastle England 2021 InfoSec Conference
  38. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  39. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท | Agile Trends Gov Conference 2021
  40. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  41. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ญ๐Ÿ‡ฐ | Private event
  42. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Florida Suncoast Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  43. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  44. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Central Virginia Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  45. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช | Private event
  46. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡น | DevOps Pro Europe 2021 Conference
  47. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Southwest Virginia Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  48. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event
  49. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฑ๐Ÿ‡บ | Luxembourg Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  50. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event
  51. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Monterey Bay Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  52. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ | Private event
  53. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฟ | New Zealand Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  54. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ช | Private event
  55. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Southern Nevada Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  56. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Institute of Advanced Management
  57. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฆ๐Ÿ‡บ | Private event
  58. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Scottish Summit 2021
  59. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ฎ | Finland Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  60. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ | ConFoo Developer Conference 2021
  61. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  62. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ | DevConf.CZ 2021 Conference
  63. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  64. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Inland Empire Chapter of Project Management Institute
  65. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  66. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช | Private event
  67. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Alaska Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  68. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | North Alabama Chapter of Project Management Institute
  69. 2021 | ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ | Netherlands Chapter of the Project Management Institute
  70. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  71. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ | Microsoft M365 Saturday Coimbatore Conference 2020
  72. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ท | IT Pro Dev Connections 2020 Conference
  73. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ณ | Microsoft Azure Community Conference 2020
  74. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  75. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท | Private event
  76. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Los Angeles Chapter of Project Management Institute
  77. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  78. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event
  79. 2020 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event
  80. 2019 | ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ | Project World / Business Analyst World
  81. 2019 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  82. 2019 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Inland Empire Chapter of Project Management Institute
  83. 2018 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Techstars Startup Week Conference
  84. 2018 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Central Valley Chapter of Project Management Institute
  85. 2018 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Private event
  86. 2018 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Inland Empire Chapter of Project Management Institute
  87. 2018 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | California Central Coast Chapter of Project Management Institute
  88. 2017 | ๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ | Los Angeles Chapter of Project Management Institute
  89. 2017 | ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง | Private event

He uses everyday language and vibrant custom content to make complex topics clear and understandable, and he provides audiences with practical information they can use. His sessions are highly rated by attendees and organizers alike.

Committed to giving back, Graffius delivers a set amount of work pro bono (no charge) to non-profits and charities.

Visit
https://scottgraffius.com/publicspeaker.html for details, including a listing of prior and upcoming engagements, testimonials, his rate card, booking information, and more.

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About Scott M. Graffius

Scott M Graffius - Generated 1 Point 9 Billion USD - v Dec 27 2023 G - LwRes

Scott M. Graffius, PMP, SA, CSP-SM, CSP-PO, CSM, CSPO, SFE, ITIL, LSSGB is an agile project management practitioner, consultant, multi-award-winning author, and international keynote speaker. He is the Founder of Exceptional PPM and PMO Solutions™ and subsidiary Exceptional Agility™. He has generated over $1.9 billion of business value in aggregate for Global Fortune 500 businesses and other organizations he has served. Graffius and content from his books, talks, workshops, and more have been featured and used by businesses, professional associations, governments, and universities. Examples include Microsoft, Oracle, Broadcom, Cisco, Gartner, Project Management Institute, IEEE, Qantas, National Academy of Sciences, United States Department of Energy, New Zealand Ministry of Education, Yale University, Tufts University, and others. He has delighted audiences with dynamic and engaging talks and workshops at 89 conferences and other events across 25 countries.

His full bio is available
here.

Connect with Scott on:


follow-scott-m-graffius-on-twitter---v22122107-1000x1000-lr---sq

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About Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions

scott_m_graffius_agile_scrum_v22123007_lr_1000x1000_sq

Shifting customer needs are common in today's marketplace. Businesses must be adaptive and responsive to change while delivering an exceptional customer experience to be competitive.

There are a variety of frameworks supporting the development of products and services, and most approaches fall into one of two broad categories: traditional or agile. Traditional practices such as waterfall engage sequential development, while agile involves iterative and incremental deliverables. Organizations are increasingly embracing agile to manage projects, and best meet their business needs of rapid response to change, fast delivery speed, and more.

With clear and easy to follow instructions, the multi award-winning
Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions book by Scott M. Graffius (Chris Hare and Colin Giffen, Technical Editors) helps the reader:

  • Implement and use the most popular agile frameworkโ€•Scrum;
  • Deliver products in short cycles with rapid adaptation to change, fast time-to-market, and continuous improvement; and
  • Support innovation and drive competitive advantage.

Hailed by Literary Titan as “the book highlights the versatility of Scrum beautifully.”

Winner of 17 first place awards.

Agile Scrum: Your Quick Start Guide with Step-by-Step Instructions is available in paperback and ebook/Kindle in the United States and around the world. Some links by country follow.

  • ๐Ÿ‡ง๐Ÿ‡ท Brazil
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ Canada
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฟ